Ambady, N., Paik, S. K., Steele, J., Owen-Smith, A., & Mitchell, J. P. (2003). Deflecting negative self-relevant stereotype activation: The effects of individuation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 401–408.
Anderson, J. R. (1985). The architecture of cognition. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Aronson, J., Fried, C. B., & Good, C. (2002). Reducing the effects of stereotype threat on African American college students by shaping theories of intelligence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Aronson, J., Lustina, M. J., Good, C., Keough, K., Steele, C. M., & Brown, J. (1999). When White men can't do math: Necessary and sufficient factors in stereotype threat. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Blascovich, J., Spencer, S. J., Quinn, D., & Steele, C. (2001). African Americans and high blood pressure: The role of stereotype threat. Psychological Science
Brewer, M. B. (1991). The social self: On being the same and different at the same time. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 475–482.
Brissette, I., Scheier, M. F., & Carver C. S. (2002). The role of optimism in social network development, coping, and psychological adjustment during a life transition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Brown, R. P., & Josephs, R. A. (1999). A burden of proof: Stereotype relevance and gender differences in math performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Brown, R. P., & Pinel, E. C. (2003). Stigma on my mind: Individual differences in the experience of stereotype threat. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Bussey, K., & Bandura, A. (1999). Social cognitive theory of gender development and differentiation. Psychological Review
Cadinu, M., Maass, A., Frigerio, S., Impagliazzo, L., & Latinotti, S. (2003). Stereotype threat: The effect of expectancy on performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 33, 267–285.
Cohen, S. (1988). Psychosocial models of the role of social support in the etiology of physical disease. Health Psychology
Conway, M., Carroll, J. M., Pushkar, D., & Arbuckle, T. (1996). Anticipated interaction, individual differences in attentional resources, and elaboration of behavior. Social Cognition, 14, 338–366.
Crocker, J., Luhtanen, R. K., Cooper, M. L., & Bouvrette, A. (2003). Contingencies of self-worth in college students: Theory and measurement. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Croizet, J., & Claire, T. (1998). Extending the concept of stereotype threat to social class: The intellectual underperformance of students from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 6, 588–594.
Davies, P. G., Spencer, S. J., Quinn, D. M., & Gerhardstein, R. (2002). Consuming images: How television commercials that elicit stereotype threat can restrain women academically and professionally. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Ford, T. E., Ferguson, M. A., Brooks, J. L., & Hagadone, K. M. (2004). Coping sense of humor reduces effects of stereotype threat on women's math performance. Personality and Social Psychology, 30, 643–653.
Gonzales, P. M., Blanton, H., & Williams, K. J. (2002). The effects of stereotype threat and double-minority status on the test performance of women. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 659–670.
Gove, W. (1972). The relationship between sex roles, marital status, and mental illness. Social Forces, 51, 34–44.
Holley, C. D., & Dansereau, D. F. (1984). Spatial learning strategies: Techniques, applications, and related issues. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Inzlicht, M., & Ben-Zeev, T. (2000). A threatening intellectual environment: Why females are susceptible to experiencing problem-solving deficits in the presence of males. Psychological Science
Inzlicht, M., & Ben-Zeev, T. (2003). Do high-achieving females underperform in private? The implications of threatening environments on intellectual processing. Journal of Educational Processing, 95, 796–805.
Keller, J. (2002). Blatant stereotype threat and women's math performance: Self-handicapping as a strategic means to cope with obtrusive negative performance expectations. Sex Roles
Keller, J., & Dauenheimer, D. (2003). Stereotype threat in the classroom: Dejection mediates the disrupting effect on women's math performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.
Leyens, J. Ph., Désert, M., Croizet, J.-C., & Darcis, C. (2000). Stereotype threat: Are lower status and history of stigmatization preconditions for stereotype threat? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 1189–1199.
Lickel, B., Hamilton, D. L., Wieczorkowska, G., Lewis, A., Sherman, S. J., & Uhles, A. N. (2000). Varieties of groups and the perception of group entitativity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Linville, P. W. (1985). Self-complexity and affective extremity: Don't put all of your eggs into one cognitive basket. Social Cognition, 3, 94–120.
Linville, P. W. (1987). Self-complexity as a cognitive buffer against stress-related illness and depression. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Linville, P. W., & Carlston, D. E. (1994). Social cognition of the self. In P. G. Devine & D. L. Hamilton (Eds.), Social cognition: Impact on social psychology (pp. 143–193). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Linville, P. W., & Jones, E. E. (1980). Polarized appraisals of out-group members. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 38, 689–703.
Major, B., Spencer, S., Schmader, T., Wolfe, C., & Crocker, J. (1998). Coping with negative stereotypes about intellectual performance: The role of psychological disengagement. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 34–50.
Marx, D. M., & Roman, J. S. (2002). Female role models: Protecting women's math test performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1183–1193.
McGuire, W. J., & McGuire, C. V. (1988). Content and process in the experience of the self. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 21, pp. 97–144). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
McIntyre, R. B., Paulson, R. M., & Lord, C. G. (2003). Alleviating women's mathematics stereotype threat through salience of group achievements. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Mickelson, K. D. (2001). Perceived stigma, social support, and depression. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 1046–1056.
O'Brien, L. T., & Crandall, C. S. (2003). Stereotype threat and arousal: Effects on women's math performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Pronin, E., Steele, C. M., & Ross, L. (2004). Identity bifurcation in response to stereotype threat: Women and mathematics. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Quinn, D. M., & Spencer, S. J. (2001). The interference of stereotype threat with women's generation of mathematical problem-solving strategies. Journal of Social Issues
Radloff, L. (1975). Sex differences in depression. Sex Roles
Rafaeli-Mor, E., & Steinberg, J. (2002). Self-complexity and well-being: A review and research synthesis. Personality and Social Psychology Review
Reevy, G. M., & Maslach, C. (2001). Use of social support: Gender and personality differences. Sex Roles
Roccas, S. (2001). The effects of identification with multiple groups. European Journal of Social Psychology, 33, 351–366.
Roccas, S. (2003). Identification and status revisited: The moderating role of self-enhancement and self-transcendence values. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Roccas, S., & Brewer, M. B. (2002). Social identity complexity. Personality and Social Psychology Review
Rothgerber, H. (1997). External intergroup threat as an antecedent to perceptions in in-group and out-group homogeneity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Sanna, L. J., & Pusecker, P. A. (1994). Self-efficacy, valence of self-evaluation, and performance. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 82–92.
Sarason, B. R., Sarason, I. G., & Gurung, R. A. R. (1997). Close personal relationships and health outcomes: A key to the role of social support. In B. R. Sarason, & S. W. Duck (Eds.), Personal relationships: Implications for clinical and community psychology (pp. 15–41). New York: Wiley.
Schmader, T. (2002). Gender identification moderates stereotype threat effects on women's math performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Schmader, T., & Johns, M. (2003). Converging evidence that stereotype threat reduces working memory capacity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Schmader, T., Johns, M., & Barquissau, M. (2004). The costs of accepting gender differences: The role of stereotype endorsement in women's experience in the math domain. Sex Roles
Seeman, T. E. (1996). Social ties and health: The benefits of social integration. Annals of Epidemiology
Shih, M., Pittinsky, T. L., & Ambady, N. (1999). Stereotype susceptibility: Identity salience and shifts in quantitative performance. Psychological Science
Smith, J. L., & White, P. H. (2001). Development of the domain identification measure: A tool for investigating stereotype threat effects. Educational and Psychological Measurement
Smith, J. L., & White, P. H. (2002). An examination of implicitly activated, explicitly activated, and nullified stereotypes on mathematical performance: It's not just a woman's issue. Sex Roles
Spencer, S. J., Steele, C. M., & Quinn, D. M. (1999). Stereotype threat and women's math performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
Steele, C. A., & Aronson, J. (1995). Stereotype threat and the intellectual test performance of African Americans. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Steele, C. M. (1997). A threat in the air: How stereotypes shape intellectual identity and performance. American Psychologist
Steele, C. M. (1998). Stereotyping and its threat are real. American Psychologist
Steele, C. M., Spencer, S. J., & Aronson, J. (2002). Contending with group image: The psychology of stereotype and social identity threat. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 34, pp. 379–440). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
Stone, J., Lynch, C. I., Sjomeling, M., & Darley, J. M. (1999). Stereotype threat effects on Black and White athletic performance. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Stricker, L. J., & Ward, W. C. (2004). Stereotype threat, inquiring about test takers' ethnicity and gender, and standardized test performance. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34, 665–693.
Stryker, S., & Statham, A. (1985). Symbolic interaction and role theory. In G. Lindzey & E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (pp. 311–378). New York: Random House.
Tajfel, H. (1978). Interindividual behavior and intergroup behavior. In H. Tajfel (Ed.), Differentiation between social groups: Studies in the social psychology of group relations (pp. 27–60). London: Academic Press.
Taylor, S. E., Sherman, D. K., Kim, H. S., Jareho, J., Takagi, K., & Dunagan M. S. (2004). Culture and social support: Who seeks it and why? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Thoits, P. A. (1983). Multiple identities and psychological well-being: A reformulation and test of the social isolation hypothesis. American Sociological Review
Turner, J. C. (1987). Rediscovering the social group: A self-categorization theory. Oxford: Blackwell.
Walsh, M., Hickey, C., & Duffy, J. (1999). Influence of item content and stereotype situation on gender differences in mathematical problem solving. Sex Roles
Wegner, D. M., & Wenzlaff, R. M. (1996). Mental control. In E. T. Higgins & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology: Handbook of basic principles (pp. 466–492). New York: Guilford Press.