Sex Roles

, Volume 52, Issue 7, pp 523–532

More Spousal Support for Men Than for Women: A Comparison of Sources and Types of Support


DOI: 10.1007/s11199-005-3718-6

Cite this article as:
Schwarzer, R. & Gutiérrez-Doña, B. Sex Roles (2005) 52: 523. doi:10.1007/s11199-005-3718-6


Types and sources of received support among 902 Costa Rican employees were examined; gender and age differences as well as associations with mental health were considered. Four types of support (advice giving, assistance, reassurance, and empathic listening) were measured as received from four sources, namely friends, family, spouses, and groups/organizations. Support types were not very distinct, therefore we aggregated sum scores across these variables. In contrast, sources were discriminant and had to be analyzed separately. An interaction between gender and age pointed to a larger discrepancy of received spousal support in middle-aged men and women than in younger ones. The older the women were, the less support they received from their spouses. In addition to this interaction, further gender differences emerged at the correlation level, where the association between spousal support and depression was significant for men only.


social supportwomenspouseswork stressdepressionmental health

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Freie UniversitätBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Universidad Estatal a DistanciaCosta Rica
  3. 3.GesundheitspsychologieFreie UniversitätBerlinGermany