Aghion, P., Fally, T., & Scarpetta, S. (2007). Credit constraints as a barrier to the entry and post-entry growth of firms. Economic Policy,
Allen, F., Bartilori, L., & Kowalewski, O. (2006). The financial system of the EU 25. In K. Liebscher, J. Christl, P. Mooslechner, & D. Ritzberger-Grunwald (Eds.), Financial development, integration, and stability: Evidence from Central, Eastern, and South-Eastern Europe (pp. 80–104). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
Beck, T., Demirgüç-Kunt, A., Laeven, L., & Maksimovic, V. (2006). The determinants of financing obstacles. Journal of International Money and Finance,
Beck, T., Demirgüç-Kunt, A., & Maksimovic, V. (2008). Financing patterns around the world: Are small firms different? Journal of Financial Economics,
Behr, P., & Güttler, A. (2007). Credit risk assessment and relationship lending: An empirical analysis of German small and medium-sized enterprises. Journal of Small Business Management,
Berger, A., & Udell, G. (1995). Relationship lending and lines of credit in small firm finance. The Journal of Business,
Berger, A., Klapper, L., & Udell, G. (2001). The ability of banks to lend to informationally opaque small businesses. Journal of Banking & Finance,
Besanko, D., & Thakor, A. V. (1987). Collateral and rationing: Sorting equilibria in monopolistic and competitive credit markets. International Economic Review,
Binks, M. R., & Ennew, C. T. (1996). Growing firms and the credit constraint. Small Business Economics,
Block, J., Thurik, A. R., Van der Zwan, P., & Walter, S. (2012). Business takeover or new venture? Individual and environmental determinants from a cross-country study. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice
Bruns, V., & Fletcher, M. (2008). Banks’ risk assessment of Swedish SMEs. Venture Capital,
Cabral, L. M. B., & Mata, J. (2003). On the evolution of the firm size distribution: Facts and theory. The American Economic Review,
Carree, M. A., & Thurik, A. R. (2007). The lag structure of the impact of business ownership on economic performance in OECD countries. Small Business Economics,
Carree, M. A., & Thurik, A. R. (2010). The impact of entrepreneurship on economic growth. In D. B. Audretsch & Z. J. Acs (Eds.), Handbook of entrepreneurship research
(pp. 557–594). Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRef
Chakravarty, S., & Xiang, M. (2009). What discourages small businesses from asking for loans? The international evidence on borrower discouragement. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1344098
. Accessed 11 September 2012.
Chan, Y., & Kanatas, G. (1985). Asymmetric valuations and the role of collateral in loan agreements. Journal of Money, Credit and Banking,
Claessens, S., Demirgüç-Kunt, A., & Huizinga, H. (2001). How does foreign entry affect domestic banking markets? Journal of Banking & Finance,
Clarke, C. R. G., Cull, R., & Soledad Martínez Pería, M. (2006). Foreign bank participation and access to credit across firms in developing countries. Journal of Comparative Economics,
Cressy, R. (2002). Funding gaps: A symposium. The Economic Journal,
Cressy, R. (2003). Credit constraints on small businesses: Theory versus evidence. International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education,
De Kok, J. M. P., Vroonhof, P., Verhoeven, W., Timmermans, N., Kwaak, T., Snijders, J., & Westhof, F. (2011). Do SMEs create more and better jobs? Report prepared by EIM for the European Commission’s DG Enterprise and Industry, Brussels: European Commission. Accessed September 11, 2012, from http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/sme/facts-figures-analysis/performance-review/files/supporting-documents/2012/do-smes-create-more-and-better-jobs_en.pdf
De Meza, D. (2002). Overlending? The Economic Journal,
De Meza, D., & Webb, D. C. (1987). Too much investment: A problem of asymmetric information. The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Devereux, M., & Schiantarelli, F. (1990). Investment, financial factors and cash flow from U.K. panel data. In G. Hubbard (Ed.), Information, capital markets and investment (pp. 279–306). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Egeln, J., Licht, G., & Steil, F. (1997). Firm foundations and the role of financial constraints. Small Business Economics,
European Central Bank (2005). EU banking structures. Accessed September 11, 2012, from http://www.ecb.int/pub/pdf/other/eubankingstructure102005en.pdf
Federal Reserve Bank. (1998). Concentration, the HHI, and the Department of Justice merger guidelines. Federal Reserve Bulletin,
Freel, M. S. (2007). Are small innovators credit rationed? Small Business Economics,
Gertler, M. (1988). Financial structure and aggregate economic activity: An overview. Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking,
Han, L., Fraser, S., & Storey, D. J. (2009). Are good or bad borrowers discouraged from applying for loans? Evidence from US small business credit markets. Journal of Banking & Finance,
Harhoff, D., & Körting, T. (1998). Lending relationships in Germany—Empirical evidence from survey data. Journal of Banking & Finance,
Harrison, A., & McMillan, M. (2003). Does direct foreign investment affect domestic firm credit constraints? Journal of International Economics,
Hyytinen, A., & Pajarinen, M. (2008). Opacity of young businesses: Evidence from rating disagreements. Journal of Banking & Finance,
Kim, G. O. (2006). Do equally owned small businesses have equal access to credit? Small Business Economics,
Kon, Y., & Storey, D. J. (2003). A theory of discouraged borrowers. Small Business Economics,
Levenson, A. R., & Willard, K. K. (2000). Do firms get the financing they want? Measuring credit rationing experienced by small businesses in the US. Small Business Economics,
Lin, H. (2011). Foreign bank entry and firms’ access to bank credit: Evidence from China. Journal of Banking & Finance,
Parker, S. C., & Van Praag, C. M. (2006). Schooling, capital constraints, and entrepreneurial performance: The endogenous triangle. Journal of Business & Economic Statistics,
Petersen, M., & Rajan, R. (1994). The benefits of lending relationships, evidence from small business data. The Journal of Finance,
Petersen, M., & Rajan, R. (1995). The effect of credit market competition on lending relationships. The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Peterson, M. F., Arregle, J.-L., & Martin, X. (2012). Multilevel models in international business research. Journal of International Business Studies,
Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models. Applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Raudenbush, S. W., Bryk, A. S., Cheong, Y. F., Congdon, R. T., Jr., & Du Toit, M. (2011). HLM 7: hierarchical linear and nonlinear modeling. Lincolnwood: Scientific Software International, Inc.
Schiantarelli, F., & Sembenelli, A. (2000). Form of ownership and financial constraints. Empirica,
St. Pierre, J., & Bahri, M. (2011). The determinants of risk premium: The case of bank lines of credit granted to SMEs. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship,
Stein, J. (2002). Information production and capital allocation: Decentralized versus hierarchical firms. Journal of Finance,
Stiglitz, J. E., & Weiss, A. (1981). Credit rationing in markets with imperfect information. The American Economic Review,
Storey, D. J. (2004). Racial and gender discrimination in the micro firms credit market? Evidence from Trinidad and Tobago. Small Business Economics,
The World Bank. (2008). Finance for all? Policies and pitfalls in expanding access. Washington, DC: World Bank Policy Research Report.
Turk-Ariss, R. (2010). On the implications of market power in banking: Evidence from developing countries. Journal of Banking & Finance,
Van Praag, C. M., & Versloot, P. H. (2007). What is the value of entrepreneurship? A review of recent research. Small Business Economics,
Wagenvoort, R. (2003a). Are finance constraints hindering the growth of SMEs in Europe? EIB Papers,
Wagenvoort, R. (2003b). SME Finance in Europe: Introduction and overview. EIB Papers,
Williamson, O. (1975). Markets and hierarchies, analysis and antitrust implications: A study in the economics of internal organization. New York: Free Press.