Ecumenical Worldview Development by Gender, Race, and Worldview: A Multiple-Group Analysis of Model Invariance
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- Bryant, A.N. Res High Educ (2011) 52: 460. doi:10.1007/s11162-010-9206-z
Based upon a national longitudinal dataset of 14,527 college students generated by the UCLA Spirituality in Higher Education Project, this study used structural equation modeling to test the applicability of a model of ecumenical worldview development for students of diverse genders, races, and worldviews. The model suggests that challenging co-curricular experiences and the salience of religion and spirituality in academic encounters tend to provoke religious/spiritual struggles, which in turn enhance ecumenical worldview. However, tests for model invariance revealed group differences in the applicability of the model. Differences by gender and race/ethnicity are minimal in comparison to differences by worldview.