Research in Higher Education

, Volume 52, Issue 5, pp 460–479

Ecumenical Worldview Development by Gender, Race, and Worldview: A Multiple-Group Analysis of Model Invariance


DOI: 10.1007/s11162-010-9206-z

Cite this article as:
Bryant, A.N. Res High Educ (2011) 52: 460. doi:10.1007/s11162-010-9206-z


Based upon a national longitudinal dataset of 14,527 college students generated by the UCLA Spirituality in Higher Education Project, this study used structural equation modeling to test the applicability of a model of ecumenical worldview development for students of diverse genders, races, and worldviews. The model suggests that challenging co-curricular experiences and the salience of religion and spirituality in academic encounters tend to provoke religious/spiritual struggles, which in turn enhance ecumenical worldview. However, tests for model invariance revealed group differences in the applicability of the model. Differences by gender and race/ethnicity are minimal in comparison to differences by worldview.


College student development Ecumenical worldview Pluralism Spirituality 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Leadership, Policy and Adult and Higher EducationNorth Carolina State UniversityRaleighUSA