Abbitt, R.J., Scott, J.M. 2001Examining differences between recovered and declining endangered speciesConserv. BioI.1512741284Google Scholar Abella, A.J., Caddy, J.F., Serena, F. 1997Do natural mortality and availability decline with age? An alternative yield paradigm for juvenile fisheries, illustrated by the hake Merluccius merluccius fishery in the Mediterranean.Aquat. Living Res.10257269Google Scholar
Agnew (2004) Fishing south: the history and management of South Georgia fisheries. Penna Press, 132 Beechwood Avenue, St Albans ALl 4YD, UK, ISBN 0-9547948-0-X email@example.com, 122 pp.
Alpoim, R. (2003) A stock status update of American plaice (Hippoglossoides platessoides) in NAFO Division 3M. Science Council Research Document NAFO No. 03/44, 12 pp.
Anonymous (1993) Alternative policies for rebuilding Pacific Ocean perch in the Gulf of Alaska. Report of the North Pacific Fishery Management Council, 37 pp.
Anonymous (2001a) 2001 report of the mackerel stock assessment panel. South Atlantic Fishery Management Council, 13 pp.
Anonymous (2001 b) A working draft Recovery operations manual 20 Nov 2001. Available from Recovery Secretariat RENEW - RESCAPE@ec.gc.ca.
Anonymous, 2001cNational recovery strategy for the Atlantic WhitefishCoregonus huntsmani. RENEWOttawa, CanadaGoogle Scholar
Anonymous (2002) National recovery plan No 22 for the Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus). March 2002 Recovery of nationally endangered wildlife.
Bailey, R.S. 1991
Changes in the North Sea herring population over a cycle of collapse and recoveryKawasaki, T.Tanaka, S.Toba, Y.Taniguchi, A. eds. Long Term Variability of Pelagic Fish Populations and Their EnvironmentPergamon PressOxford191198Google Scholar
Bailey, R.S., Steele, J.H. 1992
North Sea herring fluctuationsGlanz, M.B. eds. Climatic Variability, Climatic Change and FisheriesCambridge University PressUK213230Google Scholar
Bakken, E. 1983Recent history of Atlanto-Scandian herring stocks Proc. Expert Consultation to examine changes in abundance and species composition of neritic fish resources, San Jose, Costa Rica, 18–29 April 1983.FAO Fish. Rep./FAO. Inf. Pesca.291521536Google Scholar Beaugrand, G., Brander, K.M., Lindley, J.A., Souissi, S., Reid, RC. 2003Plankton effect on cod recruitment in the North SeaNature426661664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar Beddington, J.R., Cooke, J.G. 1983The potential yield of fish stocksFAO Fish. Tech. Pap.24247Google Scholar Belveze, H., Erzini, K. 1983The influence of hydroclimatic factors on the availability of the sardine (Sardina pilchardus Walbaum) in the Moroccan Atlantic fishery.FAO Fish. Rep. No. 291 (FIRM/R291)Vol. 2553Google Scholar Bennett, B.A., Attwood, C.G. 1991Evidence for recovery of a surf zone fish assemblage following the establishment of a marine reserve on the southern coast of South AfricaMar. Eco. Prog. Ser.75173181Google Scholar Beverton, R.J.H. 1990Small marine pelagic fish and the threat of fishing: are they endangered? JFish. Biol.46 (Suppl 1)516Google Scholar Beverton, R.J.H., Holt, S.J. 1957On the dynamics of exploited fish populationsFish. Invest. Ministr. Agric. Fish. Food. Lond. Ser II 1919533 ppGoogle Scholar Binet, D., Samb, B., Taleb Sidi, M., Levenez, J.J., Servain, J. 1998
Sardine and other pelagic fisheries changes associated with multi-year trade wind increases in the Southern Canary Current. In: DurandDurand, M.-H.Curry, P.Mendelssohn, R.Roy, C.Bakun, A.Pauly, D. eds. Global Versus Local Changes in Upwelling Systems.Collection Colloques et SeminariesOrstom, Paris594Google Scholar
Bohnsack, J.A. 1990The potential of marine fishery reserves for reef fish management in the US southern AtlanticNOAA Tech. Mem. NMFS-SEFC261140Google Scholar Borley, J.O. 1923The plaice fishery and the war. Preliminary report on investigations.Fish. Invest. Ser II53Google Scholar Botsford, L.W., Quinn, J.F., Wing, S.R., Brittnacher, J.G. 1993Rotating spatial harvest of a benthic invertebrate the red sea urchin Strongylocentrotus franciscanus.Alaska Sea Grant College Programme Report No 93-02. Univ. Alaska, FairbanksGoogle Scholar Boyd, A.J., Shannon, L.J., Schulein, F.H., Taunton-Clark, J. 1998Durand, M.-H.Curry, P.Mendelssohn, R.Roy, C.Bakun, A.Pauly, D. eds. Global Versus Local Changes in Upwelling SystemsCollection Colloques et SeminairesOrstom, Paris594Google Scholar
Brander, K. (2000) Effects of environmental variability on growth and recruitment in cod (Gadus morhua) using a comparative approach. National programme on the determinism of recruitment. Organisation Committee of the 4th symposium, Nantes, 8-9 December 1998. Comité d’organisation du 4eme symposium. Vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 485-496. Oceanologica Acta 2000.
Brander, K.M. and Bennett, D.B. (1989). Norway lobsters in the Irish Sea: modelling one component of a multispecies resource. In: Caddy, J.F. (ed.), Marine Invertebrate Fisheries. A Wiley-Interscience Publication, pp. 183-204.
Breen, P.A. and Kendrick, T.H. (1997) Production analysis for two substocks of the New Zealand red rock lobster (Jasus edwardsii) fishery. Ministry of Fisheries N.Z. Fish. Assess. Rep. 1997/4, 21pp.
Brennan, N.P., Leber, K.M., Serfling, S.A. and Halstead, W.B. (1999) Evaluation of snook stock enhancement in Sarasota Bay, Florida. Abstract only, available at: http://nersp.nerdc. ufl.edu./∼fafs/abstracts.html
Brown, R.W., Sheehan, D., Figuerido, B. 1998Response of cod and haddock populations to area closures on Georges BankICES CM 1998/U:9 Mimeo16Google Scholar Caddy, J.F. 1993Background concepts for a rotating harvest strategy with particular reference to the Mediterranean red coral resourceMar. Fish. Rev.551018Google Scholar
Caddy, J.F. (1985) An alternative to equilibrium theory for␣management of fisheries. In: FAO Expert consultation on the␣regulation of fishing effort (fishing mortality), Rome, 17-26 Jan 1983. FAO Fish. Rep. 289, Suppl. 2 (En) pp. 63-75.
Caddy, J.F. 1999aDeciding on precautionary management measures for a stock based on a suite of limit reference points (LRPs) as a basis for a multi-LRP harvest lawNAFO Sci. Coun. Stud325568Google Scholar Caddy, J.F. 1999bA short review of precautionary reference points and some proposals for their use in data-poor situationsFAO Fish. Tech. Pap.37930Google Scholar Caddy, J.F. 2002Limit reference points, traffic lights, and holistic approaches to fisheries management with minimal stock assessment inputFish. Res.56133137CrossRefGoogle Scholar Caddy, J.F. 2004Current usage of fisheries indicators and reference points, and their potential application to management of fisheries for marine invertebratesJ. Fish. Aquat. Sci.6113071324Google Scholar
Caddy, J.F. and Agnew, D. (2003a) A summary of global stock recovery plans for marine organisms, including indicative information on the time to recovery, and associated regime changes that may affect recruitment and recovery success. ICES CM 2003/U:08.
Caddy, J.F. and Agnew, D.J. (2003b) Recovery plans for depleted fish stocks: an overview of global experience. ICES CM 2003/Invited Lecture session U (Mimeo).
Caddy, J.F., Gulland, J.A. 1983Historical patterns of fish stocksMar. Pol.7267278CrossRefGoogle Scholar Caddy, J.F., Seijo, J.C. 1998Application of a spatial model to explore rotating harvest strategiesCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. Special Pub.125359365Google Scholar Caddy, J.F., Seijo, J.C. 2002Reproductive contributions foregone with harvesting: a conceptual frameworkFish. Res. Fish. Res.591730Google Scholar
Caddy, J.F. and Defeo, O. (2003) Enhancing or restoring the productivity of natural populations of shellfish and other marine invertebrate resources. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. 448, 159 pp.
Caddy, J.F. and Mahon, R. (1995) Reference points for fisheries management. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. 347, 83 pp.
Caddy, J.F., Carocci, F., Coppola, S. 1998Have peak fishery production levels been passed in continental shelf areas? Some perspectives arising from historical trends in production per shelf areaJ. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci.23191219Google Scholar Castilla, J.C., Defeo, O. 2001Latin American shellfisheries: emphasis on co-management and experimental practicesRev. Fish Biol. Fish.11130Google Scholar Charles, A.T. 1998Living with uncertainty in fisheries: analytical methods, management priorities and the Canadian groundfish experienceFish. Res.373750CrossRefGoogle Scholar Charnov, E.L. 1993Life History InvariantsOxford Series in Ecology and EvolutionOxford167Google Scholar Chouinard, G.A, Sinclair, A.F., Swain, D.P. 2003Factors implicated in the lack of recovery of southern Gulf of St Lawrence cod since the early 1990sICES CM 2003/U:04MimeoGoogle Scholar Clark, W.G. 1991Groundfish exploitation rates based on life history parametersCan. J. Fish. and Aquat. Sci.48734750Google Scholar Clark, W.G. 1993
The effect of recruitment variability on the choice of a target level of spawning biomass per recruitKruse, G.Eggers, D.M.Marasco, R.J.Pautzke, C.Quinn, T.J. II eds. Proceedings of the Int’l SympOn Management Strategies for Exploited Fish Populations, Oct 21–24, AnchorageAK233246Google Scholar
Clark, W.G., Hare, S.R., Parma, A.M., Sullivan, P.J., Trumble, R.J. 1999Decadal changes in growth and recruitment of Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis)Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.56244252Google Scholar Cochrane, K.L., Butterworth, D.S., De Oliveira, J.A.A., Roel, B.A. 1998Management procedures in a fishery based on highly variable stocks and with conflicting objectives: experiences in the South African pelagic fisheryRev. Fish Biol. Fish.8177214Google Scholar Colebrook, J.M. 1978Continuous plankton records: zooplankton and environment, North East Atlantic and North SeaOceanol. Acta.1923Google Scholar Collie, J.S., Gislason, H. 2001Biological reference points for fish stocks in a multispecies contextCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.5821672176CrossRefGoogle Scholar Coombs, S.H. 1975Continuous plankton records show fluctuations in larval fish abundance during 1948–1972Nature258134136CrossRefGoogle Scholar Crowder, L.B., Rice, J.A., Miller, T.J., Marshall, E.A. 1992
Empirical and theoretical approaches to size-based interactions and recruitment variability in fishes.De Angelis, D.Gross, L. eds. Individual-based Approaches in EcologyConcepts and Individual Models. Routledge, Chapman and HallNew York237255Google Scholar
Cushing, D.H. 1980The decline of the herring stocks and the gadoid outburstJ. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer.397081Google Scholar
DFO (2002) Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada draft␣groundfish management plan: Scotia-Fundy fisheries Maritimes region. April 1, 2002-March 31, 2002; 17 pp. (Mimeo).
Drinkwater, K.F., Harding, G.C., Mann, K.H., Tanner, N. 1996Temperature as a possible factor in the increased abundance of American lobster, Homarus americanus, during the 1980’s and early 1990’sFish Oceanogr.5176193Google Scholar
Eklund, A-M., Koenig, C. and Coleman, F.C. (1999) Recovery of jewfish (Epinephelus itajara) populations in the eastern Gulf of Mexico: assessment of population parameters and essential habitat characterization. Abstract only available at: http://nersp.nerdc.ufl.edu./∼fafs/abstracts.html
EEA European Environmental Agency (2003) Indicator fact sheet: fish stocks outside safe biological limits in 2002: June 2003 version.
FAO (1994) Review of the state of world marine fishery resources. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. No 335, FAO Rome, 136 pp.
FAO (1995a) Precautionary approach to fisheries. Part I: Guidelines on the precautionary approach to capture fisheries and species introductions. FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. 350(1), FAO Rome, 52 pp.
FAO (1995b) Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. FAO Rome, 41 pp.
FAO (2002) Second technical consultation on the suitability of the CITES criteria for listing commercially-exploited aquatic species. FAO Fish. Rep. 667, Doc. FIRM/R667(Tri), FAO Rome, 87 pp.
Fogarty, M.J., Sissenwine, M.P., Cohen, E.B. 1991Recruitment variability and the dynamics of exploited marine populationsTrends Ecol. Evol.6241246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Frank, K.T., Mohn, R.K. and Simon, J.E. (2001) Assessment of the status of Div. 4TVW haddock: 2000. CSAS Res. Doc. 2001/100.
FRCC Fisheries Resource Conservation Council (2000) “Uncharted waters”. Annual report of the fisheries resource conservation council and conservation requirements for Atlantic Groundfish stocks for 2000. FRCC.2000.R.5.
FRCC (2002) Fisheries Resource Conservation Plan 4X5Y Cod and Haddock, 13 pp (Mimeo).
Fréchet, A. (1998) Sentinel fisheries: a new type of groundfish survey in Atlantic Canada. In: Assessment of demersal resources in the Mediterranean and the adjacent seas. Pisa (Italy) 18-21 March 1998 (6 pp mimeo).
Friedlander, A.M., Ziemann, D.A. 2003Impact of hatchery releases on the recreational fishery for Pacific threadfin (Polydactylus sexfilis) in HawaiiFish. Bull.1013243Google Scholar Gabriel, W., Sissenwine, M.P., Overholtz, W.J. 1989Analysis of spawning stock biomass per recruit: an example for Georges Bank haddockN. Am. J. Fish. Manage.9383391CrossRefGoogle Scholar Garibaldi, L., Limongelli, L. 2003Trends in oceanic captures and clustering of large marine ecosystemsFAO Fish. Tech. Pap. 43571 ppGoogle Scholar
Gascuel, D., Fontanelle, G. and Maguer, C. (1998) Consistency of stock assessment and evaluation of fisheries management for European fish stocks, 1983-1995. In: Funk, F., Quinn II, T.J., Heifetz, J., Ianelli, J.N., Powers, J.E., Schweigert, J.F., Sullivan, P.J. and Zhang, C.-I. (eds.), Fishery Stock Assessment Models, Alaska Sea Grant Program, Fairbanks, AK, pp. 917-931.
Gilbert, D.J., Annala, J.H., Johnston, K. 2000Technical background to stock indicators for state-of-environment reporting in New ZealandMar. Freshw. Res.51451464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gissurarson, H.H. (2000) The politics of enclosures with special reference to the Icelandic ITQ system. In: R. Shotton (ed.), FAO Tech. Pap. 404/2, pp. 1-16.
Glanz, M.B. 1990Does history have a future? Forecasting climate change effects on fisheries by analogyFisheries153945Google Scholar
Glover, R.S., Robinson, G.A. and Colebrook, J.M. (1972) Plankton in the North Sea - an example of the problem of␣analysing variability in the environment. In: M. Ruivo (ed.), Marine Pollution and Sea Life. Fishing News Books London.
Grigg, R.W. 1989
Precious coral fisheries of the Pacific and MediterraneanCaddy, J.F. eds. Marine Invertebrate FisheriesJohn Wiley and Sons, Wiley-Interscience PublicationNew York637645Google Scholar
Gunderson, D.R. (1977) Population biology of Pacific Ocean Perch (Sebastes alutus) using an explicit age structured model. In: Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation Report for the Groundfish Resources of the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands Region as Projected for 1993 (Nov 1992), 36 pp. North Pacific Fishery Management Council, P.O. Box 103136, Anchorage AK 99510.
Haddon, M. and Semmens, J.M. (2002). Bass Strait Central Zone scallop survey, March 2002. AFMA Res. Fund Proj. No. 2002/R01/1193.
Halliday, R.G., Fanning, L.P., Mohn, R.K. 2001Use of the traffic light method in fishery management planning. Canadian Science Advisory SecretariatRes. Doc. 2001/10841 ppGoogle Scholar Hare, S.J., Mantua, N.J. 2000Empirical evidence for North-east Pacific regime shifts in 1977 and 1989prog. Oceanogr.4799102Google Scholar Harris, L. 1990Independent Review of the State of the Northern Cod Stock. Communications DirectorateDepartment of Fisheries and OceansOttawa, Ontario, CanadaGoogle Scholar Hart, D.R. 2003Yield and biomass-per-recruit analysis for rotational fisheries, with an application to the Atlantic sea scallop, (Placopecten magellanicus)Fish. Bull.1014457Google Scholar Hartman, K.J., Margraf, F.J. 2003US Atlantic coast striped bass: issues with a recovered populationFish. Mgmt. and Ecol.10309312Google Scholar Hayasi, S. 1983Some explanation for changes in abundances of major neritic-pelagic stocks in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. In: FAO Fish. Rep. 291Vol 2 (FIRM/R291)553 ppGoogle Scholar Healey, B.P., Murphy, E.F., Stansbury, D.E., Brattey, J. 2003An assessment of the cod stock in NAFO Divisions 3NOSci. Counc. Res. Doc. NAFO No. 03/5962 ppGoogle Scholar Helser, T.E., Brodziak, J.K.T. 1998Impacts of density-dependent growth and maturation on assessment advice to rebuild depleted U.Ssilver hake (Merluccius bilinearis) stocks. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.55882892Google Scholar Hennemuth, R.C., Palmer, J.E., Brown, B.E. 1980A statistical description of recruitment in eighteen selected fish stocksJ. Northwest Atl. Fish. Sci.1101111Google Scholar Hennemuth, R.C., Autges, S.M. 1982Effects of variability of recruitment on management advice22, 4 pp (mimeo)ICES Pelagic Fish. Comm. CM 1982/HGoogle Scholar Hilden, M. 1988Errors of perception in stock and recruitment studies due to wrong choices of natural mortality rate in Virtual Population AnalysisJ. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer.44123134Google Scholar
Hoag, S.H., Peltonen, G.J. and Sadorus, L.L. (1993) Regulations of the Pacific halibut fishery, 1977–1992. International Pacific Halibut Commission Technical Report 27.
Hutchings, J.A. 1996Spatial and temporal variation in the density of northern cod and a review of hypotheses for the stock’s collapseCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.53943962CrossRefGoogle Scholar Hutchings, J.A. 2000Collapse and recovery of fish stocksNature 406882–885Google Scholar Hutchings, J. 2001Conservation biology of marine fishes: perceptions and caveats regarding assignment of extinction riskCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.58108121CrossRefGoogle Scholar Hutchings, J., Myers, R.A. 1994What can be learned from the collapse of a renewable resource? Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, of Newfoundland and LabradorCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.5121262146CrossRefGoogle Scholar Ianelli, J.N., Ito, D.H. 1992Pacific Ocean perch. In: Stock assessment and fishery evaluation report for the groundfish resources of the Bering Sea/Aleutian Islands region as projected for 1993 (Nov 1992). North Pacific Fishery Management CouncilP.O. Box 103136Anchorage AK 99510, 36 ppGoogle Scholar
ICES International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (1990) Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on fishery management. ICES Co-op Res. Report 168.
ICES 1994aReport of the study group on the North Sea plaice boxInt. Council. Explor. SeaCommittee Meeting Assess. 14Google Scholar ICES 1994bWorking group on long-term management measures, Miami 18–27 Jan11 (Mimeo)C.M. 1994/AssessGoogle Scholar ICES 1994cReports of the Barents Sea working group8Int. Counc. Explor. Sea Committee Meeting AssessGoogle Scholar ICES 1997Report of the comprehensive fishery evaluation working group15 (Mimeo)Advisory Committee on Fishery Management ICES C.M. 1997/AssessGoogle Scholar ICES 1999Report of the workshop on the evaluation of the plaice box. Int. Council Explor. SeaCommittee Meeting1999/D: 6Google Scholar
ICES (2000) Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 2000. ICES Coop. Res. Rep. No. 242.
ICES (2001) Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 2001. ICES Coop. Res. Rep. No. 246.
ICES (2002) Report of the ICES Advisory Committee on Fishery Management, 2002. ICES Coop. Res. Rep. No. 255.
Iles, T.C., Beverton, R.J.H. 2000The concentration hypothesis: the statistical evidenceICES J. Mar. Sci.57216227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
IUCN (2002) Threatened fish? Initial guidelines for applying the IUCN Red List criteria to marine fishes. http://www.iucn.org/themes/ssc/redlists/fish.htm.
Jakobsson, J. 1980Exploitation of the Iceland spring- and summer-spawning herring in relation to fisheries management1947–1977. Rapp- P.-v. Reun. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer. 177pp. 23–42Google Scholar Jennings, S. 2001Patterns and prediction of population recovery in marine reservesRev. Fish Biol. Fish.10209231Google Scholar Jones, R. 1983The decline in herring and mackerel and the associated increase in other species in the North Sea. FAO Fish. Rep. 291Vol. 2 (FIRM/R291)553 ppGoogle Scholar Junqueira, A.O.R., Ventura, C.R.R., Carvalho, A.L.P.S., Schmidt, A.J. 1997Population recovery of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus in a seagrass flat (Araruama lagoon, Brazil): the role of recruitment in a disturbed environmentInvert. Reprod. Dev.31(1–3)143150Google Scholar Jurado-Molina, J., Livingstone, P. 2002Climate-forcing effects on trophically-linked groundfish populations: implications for fisheries managementCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.5919411951CrossRefGoogle Scholar Kawasaki, T. 1983Why do some pelagic fishes have wide fluctuations in their numbers? Biological basis of fluctuation from the viewpoint of evolutionary ecology. FAO Fish. Rep. 291(FIRM/R291)Vol. 3: pp. 557–1224Google Scholar Kawasaki, T. 1992Mechanisms governing fluctuations in pelagic fish populationsIn: Payne, A., Brink, K.H., Mann, K.H. and Hilborn, R. (ed.), Benguela Trophic Functioning. S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci.12321333Google Scholar Kelly, P.M. 1983Climatic change: past lessons and future prospectsFAD Fish. Rep.291, (FIRM/R291), 35571224Google Scholar Kirkwood, G.P. 1997The revised management procedure of the International Whaling Commission. In: PikitchE.K.Huppert, D.D. and Sissenwine, M.P. (eds.), Global Trends: Fisheries Management. Amer. Fish. Soc. Symp. 20, Bethesda, MD pp. 91–99Google Scholar Klyashtorin, L.B. 2001Climate change and long-term fluctuations of commercial catchesFAO Tech. Pap. 41086 ppGoogle Scholar Koeller, P., Savard, L., Parsons, D.G., Fu, C. 2000A precautionary approach to assessment and management of shrimp stocks in the Northwest AtlanticJ. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci.27235246Google Scholar
Kurland, J.M. (1997) Implications of the essential fish habitat requirement of the Magnuson-Stevens Act. Proceedings from a conference on the effects of fishing gear on the sea floor of New England, Ashland, MA (USA), 30 May 1997.
Laurec, A. and Armstrong, D. (1997) The European Common Fishery Policy and its evolution. In: Pikitch, E.K., Huppert, D.D. and Sissenwine, M.P. (eds.), Global Trends: Fisheries Management. Am. Fish. Soc. Symp. 20, 61-72.
Law, R. 2000Fishing, section, and phenotypic evolutionICES J. Mar. Sci.57659668CrossRefGoogle Scholar Liermann, M., Hilborn, R. 1997Depensation in fish stocks: a hierarchic Bayesian meta-analysisCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.5419761984CrossRefGoogle Scholar Lluch-Belda, D., Crawford, R., Kawasaki, T., MacCall, A., Parrish, R., Schwartzlose, R., Smith, P. 1989WorId-wide fluctuations of sardine and anchovy stockThe regime problem. S. Afr. J. Mar. Sci.8195205Google Scholar Longhurst, A. 2002Murphy’s Law revisited: longevity as a factor in recruitment to fish populationsFish. Res.56125131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
MacCall, A.D. (1983) Variability of pelagic fish stocks off California. In: FAO Fish. Rep. 291, Vol. 2 (FIRM/R291), 553 pp.
MacCall, A.D. 2002Fishery management and stock rebuilding prospects under conditions of low frequency environmental variability and species interactionsBull. Mar. Sci.70613628Google Scholar Mace, P.M., Sissenwine, M.P. 1993How much spawning per recruit is enough? In: Smith, S.J., Hunt, J.Jand Rivard, D. (eds.), Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci.120101118Google Scholar
Mackett, D.J. and Helvey, M. (1998) Regional Strategic Plan. National Marine Fisheries Service, Southwest Region (http://swr.ucsd.edu/swrplan.htm).
Main, J., Sangster, G.I. 1982A study of a multi-level bottom trawl for species separation using direct observation techniquesDept. Agric. Fish. Scott. Fish. Res. Rep. 2628 ppGoogle Scholar Margetts, A.R., Holt, S.J. 1948The effect of the 1939–1945 War on the English North Sea trawl fisheriesCons. Int. Explor. Mer, Rapp. Et Proc.-Verb.1222646Google Scholar McConnaughey, R.A., Mier, K.L., Drew, C.B. 2000An examination of chronic trawling effects on soft-bottom benthos of the Eastern Bering SeaICES J. Mar. Sci.5713771388CrossRefGoogle Scholar Mendelssohn, C., Roy, A., Bakun, , Pauly , D. 1998Global versus local changes in upwelling systems. Collection Colloques et SeminariesOrstomParis594Google Scholar
Mohn, R. (2002). Production modelling and decision rules. Maritimes RAP Working Paper 2002/31: 14 p. In: O’Boyle, R.N. (Chair) (2003). Proceedings of a Maritimes regional advisory process meeting on assessment frameworks and decision rules for 4X-5Y cod and haddock. Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Proceed. Ser. 2003/008, 67 pp.
Murawski, S.A. 2000Definitions of overfishing from an ecosystem perspectiveICES J. Mar. Sci.57649658CrossRefGoogle Scholar Murawski, S.A., Brown, R., Lai, H.-L., Rago, P.J., Hendrickson, L. 2000Large scale closed areas as a fisheries-management tool in temperate marine systems: the Georges Bank experienceBull. Mar. Sci.66775798Google Scholar Musick, J.A. 1999Criteria to define extinction risk in marine fishesFisheries (US).24614Google Scholar Musick, J.A., Harbin, M.M., Berkeley, S.A., Burgess, G.H., Eklund, A.M., Findley, L., Gilmore, R.G., Golden, J.T., Ha, D.S., Huntsman, G.R, McGovern, J.C., Parker, S.J., Poss, S.G., Sala, E., Schmidt, T.W., Sedberry, G.R.,, Weeks, H., Wright, S.G. 2000Marine, estuarine and diadromous fish stocks at risk of extinction in North America (Exclusive of Pacific salmonids).Fisheries25630CrossRefGoogle Scholar Myers, R.A., Rosenberg, A.A., Mace, P.M., Barrowman, N., Restrepo, V.R. 1994In search of thresholds for recruitment overfishingICES J. Mar. Sci.51191205CrossRefGoogle Scholar Myers, R.A., Bridson, J., Barrowman, N.J. 1995Summary of worldwide spawner and recruitment dataCan. Tech. Rep. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 2024274 pp274Google Scholar Myers, R.A., Bowen, K.G., Barrowman, N.J. 1999The maximum reproductive rate of fish at low population sizesCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.5624042419CrossRefGoogle Scholar Myers, R.A., Fuller, S.D., Kehler, D.G. 2000A fisheries management strategy robust to ignorance: rotational harvest in the presence of indirect fishing mortalityCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.5723572362CrossRefGoogle Scholar Myers, R.A., Worm, B. 2003Rapid worldwide depletion of predatory fish communitiesNature423280283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
Neave, P. (1993) The Southern Bluefin Tuna Fishery 1993. Compiled by the SBFT Stock Assessment Group. Australian Fisheries Management Authority, 28 National Circuit, Forrest ACT 2603. Cited in Fujita, R.M. and I. Zevos (1996). Innovative approaches to fostering conservation in marine fisheries. Document prepared for NRC Committee on Ecosystem Management for Sustainable Marine Fisheries, Environmental Defence Fund, 5655 College Avenue, Oakland CA 94618.
NOAA (2004) NOAA Home Page. US fish stocks are rebounding, according to government report NOAA releases␣2003 Status of Fisheries of the United States to Congress, 2 pp. (http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2004/s2243.htm)
Nowlis, J.S., Bollermann, B. 2002Methods for increasing the likelihood of restoring and maintaining productive fisheriesBull. Mar.70715731Google Scholar
O’Boyle, R.N. (2003) Proceedings of a Maritimes regional advisory process meeting on assessment frameworks and decision rules for 4X-5Y cod and haddock. Can. Sci. Advis. Sec. Proceed. Ser.
2003/008, 67 pp.
O’Brien, C.M., Fox, C.J., Planque, B., Casey, J. 2000Climate variability and North Sea codNature404142PubMedGoogle Scholar Olsen, R.J. 1982Feeding and energetic studies of yellowfin tuna: food for ecological thoughtCollect. Vol. Sci. Rep. ICAAT17444457Google Scholar Orensanz, J.M., Armstrong, J., Armstrong, D., Hilborn, R. 1998Crustacean resources are vulnerable to serial depletion–the multifaceted decline of crab and shrimp fisheries in the Greater Gulf of AlaskaRev. Fish. Biol. Fish.8117176Google Scholar Ouellet, P., Lambert, Y., Berube, I. 2001Cod egg characteristics and viability in relation to low temperature and maternal nutritional conditionICES J. Mar. Sci.58627686CrossRefGoogle Scholar Overholtz, W.J. 2002The Gulf of Maine-Georges bank Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus): spatial pattern analysis of the collapse and recovery of a large marine fish complexFish. Res.57237254CrossRefGoogle Scholar Overholtz, W.J., Sissenwine, M.P., Clark, S.H. 1986Recruitment variability and its implications for managing and rebuilding the Georges Bank Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglifinus) stockCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.43748753Google Scholar Parma, A.M. 1990Optimal harvesting of fish populations with non-stationary stock-recruit relationshipsNat. Resour. Model 443976Google Scholar Parma, A.M. 2002In search of robust harvest rules for Pacific halibut in the face of uncertain assessments and decadal changes in productivityBull. Mar. Sci.70423453Google Scholar Parsons, L.S. 1993Management of marine fisheries in CanadaCan. Bull. Fish. Aquat. Sci. No 225782 ppGoogle Scholar Parsons, L.S., Beckett, J.S. 1997
Fisheries Management in Canada: The case of Atlantic GroundfishPikitch, E.K.Huppert, D.D.Sissenwine, M.P. eds. Global Trends: Fisheries ManagementAmerican Fisheries Society, BethesdaMD7379Google Scholar
Patterson, K. 1992Fisheries for small pelagic species: an empirical approach to management targetsRev. Fish Biol. Fish2321338Google Scholar Pauly, D., Christensen, V., Dalsgaard, V., Froese, R., Torres, F. 1998Fishing down marine food websScience279860863PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar Perry, R.I., Parker, G., Rogers, J. 2000Science and management of sea urchins in British Columbia–a rebuilding fishery? JShellfish. Res.19623624Google Scholar Piet, G.J., Rijnsdorp, A.D. 1998Changes in the demersal fish assemblage in the south-eastern North Sea following the establishment of a protected area (‘plaice box’)ICES J. Mar. Sci.55420429CrossRefGoogle Scholar Pikitch, E.K., Huppert, D.D., Sissenwine, M.P. 1997Pikitch, E. K.Huppert, D.D.Sissenwine, M.P. eds. Global TrendsFisheries Management. American Fisheries SocietyBethesda, MD6172Google Scholar Pipitone, C., Badalamente, F., D’ Anna, G., Patti, B. 2000Fish biomass increase after a four-year trawl ban in the Gulf of Castellammare (NW Sicily: Mediterranean Sea)Fish. Res.482330CrossRefGoogle Scholar Polachek, T. 1990Year around closed areas as a management toolNat. Resour. Model.4327354Google Scholar Polachek, T. 2002Experimental catches and the precautionary approach: the Southern Bluefin disputeMar. Policy26283294Google Scholar
Pope, J.G. and Symes, D. (2000) An ecosystem based approach to the Common Fisheries Policy: Defining the goals. Informal document English Nature, ISSN 0967-876X, 40 pp.
Poulsen, K 1995Bering Sea Red King Crab: resolving bycatch equals stock rebuilding? In: Solving Bycatch: Considerations for Today and Tomorrow. Alaska Sea Grant College Program Report no. 96-03. University of AlaskaFairbanksAKGoogle Scholar
Powers, D. (2003) An assessment of the status of the redfish in NAFO Divisions 3LN. Sci. Counc. Res. Doc. NAFO No. 03/55, 21 pp.
Powers, J.E. 1996Benchmark requirements for recovering fish stocksN. Am. J. Fish. Man.16495504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Powers, J.E. (2003) Principles and realities for successful stock recovery - a review of some successes and failures. ICES Doc. CM 20031U:12, 14 pp.
Powles, H., Bradford, M.J., Doubleday, R.G., Innes, W.G., Levings, C.D. 2000Assessing and protecting endangered marine speciesICES J. Mar. Sci.57669676CrossRefGoogle Scholar Prager, M.H., O’Brien, J.F., Saila, S.B. 1987Using lifetime fecundity to compare management strategies: a case study for striped bassN. Amer. J. Fish. Manage.7403409Google Scholar Prager, M.H., Porch, C.E., Shertzer, K.W., Caddy, J.F. 2003Targets and limits for management of fisheries: a simple probability-based approachN. Amer. J. Fish. Manage.23349361Google Scholar
Quinn, T.J. II, Deriso, R.B., Hoag, S.H. and Myhre, R.J. (1984) A summary of methods of stimulating annual surplus production for the Pacific halibut fishery. Bulletin 42 Int. N. Pacific Fish. Comm. pp. 73–81.
Rago, P.J. 1991Chesapeake Bay striped bass: the consequences of habitat degradationMar. Recreat. Fisheries14105116Google Scholar Rakitin, A., Ferguson, M.M., Trippel, E.A. 1999spermatozoa density and size in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua): correlation and variation during the spawning season.Aquaculture170349358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ransier, J., Dennis, B., Edwards, R. and Neidig, C. (1999) The use of sonic tags to track mixed assemblages of wild and hatchery-reared red drum. Abstract only available at: http://nersp.nerdc.ufl.edu./∼fafs/abstracts.html
Repetto, R. 2001A natural experiment in fisheries managementMar. Policy25251264Google Scholar Restrepo, V.R., Thompson, G.G., Mace, P.M., Gabriel, W.L., Low, L.L., MacCall, A.D., Methot, R.D., Powers, J.E., Taylor, B.L., Wade, P.R., Witzig, J.F. 1998Technical guidance on the use of precautionary approaches to implementing National Standard 1 of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act. National Marine Fisheries ServiceNOAA Technical MemorandumNMFS-F/SPO-31Google Scholar
Rice, J.C., Shelton, P.A., Rivard, D., Chouinard, G.A. and Frechet, A. (2003) Recovering Canadian Atlantic cod stocks: The shape of things to come? ICES CM 2003/U:06 (Mimeo) 23 pp.
Richards, R.A., Rago, P.J. 1999A case study of effective fishery management: Chesapeake Bay striped bassN. Am. J. Fish. Manage.19356375CrossRefGoogle Scholar Roberts, C.M., Hawkins, J.P. 1999Extinction risk in the seaTREE14241245PubMedGoogle Scholar Rose, G.A. 1993Cod spawning on a migratory highway in the North-west AtlanticNature366458461CrossRefGoogle Scholar Rose, K.A., Cowan Jr, J.H., Winemiller, K.O., Myers, R.A., Hilborn, R. 2001Compensatory density dependence in fish populations: importance controversy understanding and prognosis.Fish Fisheries2293327CrossRefGoogle Scholar Rosenberg, A.A., Brault, S. 1991Stock rebuilding over different time scalesNAFO Sci. Coun. Studies16171181Google Scholar Rosenberg, A., fourteen co-authors. , 1994Scientific review of definitions of overfishing in U.S: fishery management plans. US National Marine Fisheries ServiceWashington, DCGoogle Scholar Rottingen, I., Slotte, A. 1998Norwegian spring spawning herring (Clupea harengus L.): protection of spawning areas in relation to changes in migration patternICES Doc. C.M. 1998/U:10Mimeo12Google Scholar Rumohr, H., Kujawski, T. 2000The impact of trawl fishery on the epifauna of the southern North SeaICES J. Mar. Sci.5713891394CrossRefGoogle Scholar Russ, G.R., Alcala, A.C. 1996Marine reserves–rates and patterns of recovery and decline of large predatory fishEcol. Applic.6947961Google Scholar Russ, G.R., Alcala, A.C. 1998Natural fishing experiments in marine reserves 1983–1993: roles of life history and fishing intensity in family responsesCoral Reefs17399416Google Scholar Sanders, M.J., Beinssen, K.H.H. 1998A comparison of management strategies for the rehabilitation of a fishery: applied to the fishery for blacklip abalone Haliotis rubra in the Western Zone of Victoria (Australia)Fish. Res.38283301CrossRefGoogle Scholar Secor, D.H., Arefjev, V., Nikolaev, A., Sharov, A. 2000Restoration of sturgeons: lessons from the Caspian Sea Sturgeon Ranching ProgrammeFish Fisheries1215230CrossRefGoogle Scholar Shelton, P.A., Healey, B.P. 1999Should depensation be dismissed as a possible explanation for the lack of recovery of the northern cod (Gadus morhua) stockCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.5615211524CrossRefGoogle Scholar Shepherd, S.A., Rodda, K.R., Vargas, K.M. 2001A chronicle of collapse in two abalone stocks with proposals for precautionary, managementJ. Shellfish Res.20843856Google Scholar Sissenwine, M.P., Shepherd, J.G. 1987An alternative perspective on recruitment overfishing and biological reference pointsCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.44913918Google Scholar Smedbol, R.K., Wroblewski, J.S. 2002Metapopulation theory and northern cod population structure: interdependency of subpopulations in recovery of a groundfish populationFish. Res.55161174Google Scholar Smith, S.E., Au, D.W., Show, C. 1998Intrinsic rebound potentials of 26 species of Pacific sharksMar. Freshwat. Res.49663678Google Scholar Soutar, A., Isaacs, J.D. 1974Abundance of pelagic fish during the 19th and 20th centuries as recorded in anaerobic sediment off the CaliforniasFish. Bull. (U.S.)72257273Google Scholar Southward, A.J., Boalch, G.T., Maddock, L. 1988Fluctuations in the herring and pilchard fisheries of Devon and Cornwall linked to changes in climate since the 16th centuryJ. Mar. Biol. Assoc. 68U.K.423445Google Scholar Spencer, D.D., Collie, J.S. 1997aEffect of non-linear predation rates on rebuilding the Georges bank haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) stockCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.5429202929Google Scholar Spencer, D.D., Collie, J.S. 1997bPatterns of population variability in marine fish stocksFish. Oceanogr.6188204CrossRefGoogle Scholar Starr, P.J., Breen, P.A., Hilborn, R.H., Kendrick, T.H. 1997Evaluation of a management decision rule for a New Zealand rock lobster substockAus. Mar. Freshw. Res.4810931101Google Scholar Steele, J.H. 1992
North Sea herring fluctuationsGlanz, M.H. eds. Climate Variability, Climate Change and FisheriesCambridge University PressUK213230Google Scholar
Steele, J.S. 1996Regime shifts in fisheries managementFish. Res.251923CrossRefGoogle Scholar
STEFC (2002) Report of the STECF April 2002, DG Fish, European Commission.
Stocker, M. (1993) Recent management of the British Columbia herring fishery. In: Parsons L.S. and Lear, W.H. (eds.), Perspectives on Canadian marine fisheries management. Can. Bull. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 226, 167-293.
Svasand, T., Kristiansen, T.S., Pedersen, T., Vea Salvanes, A.G., Engelsen, R., Naevdal, G., Nodtvedt, M. 2000The enhancement of cod stocksFish Fisheries1173205CrossRefGoogle Scholar Swaby, S.E., Potts, G.W. 1990Rare British Marine fishes–identification and conservationJ. Fish. Biol.37 (Suppl. A)133145Google Scholar
Swain, D.P., Sinclair, A.F., Chouinard, G.A. and Drinkwater, K.F. (2000) Ecosystem effects on pre-recruit survival of cod in the southern Gulf of St Lawrence. Available at: http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/csas/English/Research_Years/2000/2000_147E.htm
Tegner, M.J., Basch, L.V., Dayton, P.K. 1996Near extinction of an exploited marine invertebrateTrend Ecol. Evol.11278280CrossRefGoogle Scholar Terceiro, M. 2002The summer flounder chronicles: science, politics and litigation, 1975–2000Revs. Fish. Biol. Fish.11125168Google Scholar
Thompson, G.G. and Shimada, A.M. (1990) Pacific cod. In: L-L. Low and Narita, R.E. (eds.), Condition of groundfish resources in the Bering Sea-Aleutian Islands Region as assessed in 1988, pp. 44-66. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS F/NWC-I78.
Trippel, E.A. 1998Egg size and viability and seasonal offspring production of young Atlantic codTrans. Am. Fish. Soc.127339359CrossRefGoogle Scholar Trippel, E.A., Neilson, J.D. 1992Fertility and sperm quality of virgin and repeat spawning Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and associated hatching successCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.4921182127CrossRefGoogle Scholar Tupper, M., Boutilier, R.G. 1995Effects of habitat on settlement, growth and post-settlement survival of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.5218341841CrossRefGoogle Scholar Ueber, E., MacCall, A. 1992
The rise and fall of the Californian sardine empireGlanz, M.H. eds. Climate Variability, Climate Change and FisheriesCambridge University PressUK3148Google Scholar
Ursin, E. 1982Stability and variability in the marine ecosystemDana25165Google Scholar
van Beek, F.A. and Pastoors, M.A. (1999) Evaluating ICES catch forecasts: the relationship between implied and realised␣fishing mortality. Theme Session: Fishing capacity, effort and mortality. ICES CM 1999/R:04, ICES Copenhagen.
Walters, C.J., Juanes, F. 1993Recruitment limitation as a consequence of natural selection for use of restricted feeding habitats and predation risk taking by juvenile fishesCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.5020582070Google Scholar Walters, C., Kitchell, J.F. 2001Cultivation/depensation effects on juvenile survival and recruitment: implications for the theory of fishingCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.583950CrossRefGoogle Scholar Walters, C.J., Parma, A. 1996Fixed exploitation rate strategies for coping with effects of climate changeCan. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci.53148158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ware, D.M. and Schweigert, J. (2002) Metapopulation dynamics of British Columbia herring during cool and warm climate regimes. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat (CSAC) Res. Doc. 2002/107, 37 pp.
White, A.T. 1988The effects of community-managed marine reserves in the Philippines on their associated coral reef fish populationsAsian Mar. Biol.22741Google Scholar White, A.T., Courtney, C.A., Salamanca, A. 2002Experience with marine protected area planning and management in the PhilippinesCoastal Management30126Google Scholar Wigley, S.E. 1999Effects of first-time spawners on stock-recruitment relationships for two groundfish speciesJ. Northw. Atl. Fish. Sci.25215218Google Scholar Wooten, J.T. 1994The nature and consequences of indirect effects in ecological communitiesAnnu. Rev. Ecol. Syst.25443466Google Scholar
Zwanenburg, K.C.T., Bowen, D., Bundy, A., Drinkwater, K., Frank, K., Q’Boyle, R., Sameoto, D. and Sinclair, M. (2002) Chapter 4: Decadal changes in the Scotian Shelf Large Marine Ecosystem. In: Sherman, K. and Skjoldal, H.R. (eds.), Large Marine Ecosystems of the North Atlantic Elsevier Science, pp. 105-150.