Insulin resistance, lipodystrophy and cardiometabolic syndrome in HIV/AIDS
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- Galescu, O., Bhangoo, A. & Ten, S. Rev Endocr Metab Disord (2013) 14: 133. doi:10.1007/s11154-013-9247-7
HIV associated insulin resistance, lipodistrophy and cardiometabolic syndrome have been extensively studied and continue to be the scope of much research. There is compelling evidence that both the HIV itself and the therapeutical regimes are major contributors to all of these associated comorbidities. HIV has increasingly been recognized as a disease of accelerated aging, manifested by increased progression of vascular disease and cellular markers of aging. The antiretroviral medication can increase insulin resistance and cause lipotoxocity and HIV-associated lipodystrophy leading to cardiovascular pathology. In this article we review the pathogenesis, management, and prevention of the long-term complications of HIV and its therapies, including cardiovascular disease, lipodystrophy, and insulin resistance along with the growing focus on biomarkers to predict development of end-organ disease. Through a focused literature search we review the established evidence, the developing research about the treatment strategies in treated HIV infection as well as identify potential areas for future research.