, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 173-186
Date: 08 May 2012

Sex and steroid hormones in early brain injury

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Brain injury during development can have severe, long-term consequences. Using an array of animal models, we have an understanding of the etiology of perinatal brain injury. However, we have only recently begun to address the consequences of endogenous factors such as genetic sex and developmental steroid hormone milieu. Our limited understanding has sometimes led researchers to make over-generalizing and potentially dangerous statements regarding treatment for brain injury. Therefore this review acts as a cautionary tale, speaking to our need to understand the effects of sex and steroid hormone environment on the response to brain trauma in the neonate.