Reviews in Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 173–186

Sex and steroid hormones in early brain injury


DOI: 10.1007/s11154-012-9219-3

Cite this article as:
Nuñez, J. Rev Endocr Metab Disord (2012) 13: 173. doi:10.1007/s11154-012-9219-3


Brain injury during development can have severe, long-term consequences. Using an array of animal models, we have an understanding of the etiology of perinatal brain injury. However, we have only recently begun to address the consequences of endogenous factors such as genetic sex and developmental steroid hormone milieu. Our limited understanding has sometimes led researchers to make over-generalizing and potentially dangerous statements regarding treatment for brain injury. Therefore this review acts as a cautionary tale, speaking to our need to understand the effects of sex and steroid hormone environment on the response to brain trauma in the neonate.


Estrogen Excitotoxicity GABA Hypoxia-Ischemia Testosterone 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Neuroscience ProgramMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA