Reading interventions for struggling readers in the upper elementary grades: a synthesis of 20 years of research
- First Online:
- Cite this article as:
- Wanzek, J., Wexler, J., Vaughn, S. et al. Read Writ (2010) 23: 889. doi:10.1007/s11145-009-9179-5
- 1.7k Downloads
A synthesis of the extant research on reading interventions for students with reading difficulties and disabilities in fourth and fifth grade (ages 9–11) is presented. Thirteen studies with treatment/comparison study designs and eleven single group or single subject studies were located and synthesized. Findings from the 24 studies revealed high effects for comprehension interventions on researcher-developed comprehension measures. Word recognition interventions yielded small to moderate effects on a range of reading outcomes. Few studies were located implementing vocabulary and multi-component interventions.