Reading and Writing

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 317–347

A synthesis of fluency interventions for secondary struggling readers


    • Special EducationThe University of Texas at Austin
  • Sharon Vaughn
    • Special EducationThe University of Texas at Austin
  • Meaghan Edmonds
    • Educational PsychologyThe University of Texas at Austin
  • Colleen Klein Reutebuch
    • Special EducationThe University of Texas at Austin

DOI: 10.1007/s11145-007-9085-7

Cite this article as:
Wexler, J., Vaughn, S., Edmonds, M. et al. Read Writ (2008) 21: 317. doi:10.1007/s11145-007-9085-7


Previous research studies examining the effects of fluency interventions on the fluency and comprehension outcomes for secondary struggling readers are synthesized. An extensive search of the professional literature between 1980 and 2005 yielded a total of 19 intervention studies that provided fluency interventions to secondary struggling readers and measured comprehension and/or fluency outcomes. Findings revealed fluency outcomes were consistently improved following interventions that included listening passage previewing such as listening to an audiotape or adult model of good reading before attempting to read a passage. In addition, there is preliminary evidence that there may be no differential effects between repeated reading interventions and the same amount of non-repetitive reading with older struggling readers for increasing reading speed, word recognition, and comprehension.



Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007