Reading and Writing

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 339–361

The Contribution of Naming Speed to the Simple View of Reading


DOI: 10.1007/s11145-005-4644-2

Cite this article as:
Johnston, T.C. & Kirby, J.R. Read Writ (2006) 19: 339. doi:10.1007/s11145-005-4644-2


The purpose of this study was to investigate whether naming speed makes a contribution to the prediction of reading comprehension, after taking into account the product of word decoding and listening comprehension (i.e., the Simple View of Reading; [Gough, P.B. & Tunmer, W.E. (1986). Remedial and Special Education 7, 6–10]), and phonological awareness. In grade 3, word decoding was measured with the Woodcock [(1998). Woodcock Reading Mastery Tests – Revised. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Services]. Word Identification and Word Attack subtests, listening comprehension with the Woodcock (1991) [Woodcock Language Proficiency Battery – Revised. Chicago: Riverside Publishing Company] test of Listening Comprehension, naming speed with a picture naming task, and 4 measures assessed phonological awareness. Reading comprehension was assessed in grades 3, 4, and 5 with the Woodcock (1998) Passage Comprehension subtest and in grade 5 with the Gates–MacGinitie reading test. The Simple View was evaluated twice: first, with a pseudoword measure for decoding (Grapheme–Phoneme-conversion product) and, second, with a word identification measure for decoding (word recognition product). Hierarchical regression and commonality analyses indicated that the decoding and listening comprehension products accounted for considerable variance in reading comprehension. Naming speed had a small but significant effect after accounting for the Grapheme–Phoneme-conversion product (2–3%), but little effect after accounting for the word-recognition product (0–2%). Subgroup analyses indicated that naming speed had its primary effect for less able readers. Commonality analyses supported the interpretation that naming speed contributes after the Grapheme–Phoneme-conversion product but not after the word recognition product because naming speed has already had its effect upon word recognition. These results indicate that it is important how the Simple View decoding term is defined, and that the Simple View may be incomplete, especially for less able readers.


Listening comprehensionNaming speedPhonological awarenessSimple view of reading

Copyright information

© Springer 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of WindsorWindsorCanada
  2. 2.Faculty of EducationQueen’s UniversityKingstonCanada