Score equivalence of electronic and paper versions of the Social Difficulties Inventory (SDI-21): a randomised crossover trial in cancer patients
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The Social Difficulties Inventory (SDI-21) assesses everyday problems experienced by cancer patients, including difficulties with self-care, work and relationships. Early development and psychometric evaluation studies have validated the SDI-21 for computer administration. However, several recent studies have administered the SDI-21 on paper. We sought to test the score equivalence of electronic and paper versions of the SDI-21.
A randomised two-arm crossover trial in a sample of cancer patients with varied diagnoses. Patients completed electronic (via the internet) and paper versions of the SDI-21, with half randomly assigned to complete the electronic version first (n = 51) and half the paper version first (n = 60). Patients were asked to complete both versions at home, within 2 weeks. Analyses were performed for the SDI-21 summary score and three subscales.
Score distributions and internal reliabilities for the paper and electronic versions were highly similar. There were no significant differences between mean summary or subscale scores for the two administration modes. All mean score differences (all <0.25 of a scale point) were well below the SDI-21’s established minimally important differences, and all 95 % confidence intervals were narrow and included zero. Intraclass correlations between paper and electronic scores were uniformly high and significant (all ≥0.85) and above the standard acceptable level of reliability.
Paper and electronic versions of the SDI-21 can be considered equivalent and used interchangeably. This is important because, despite the growth of electronic formats, paper versions are currently still necessary to ensure inclusive use of the SDI-21 with representative samples.
- Wright, E. P., Kiely, M. A., Lynch, P., Cull, A., & Selby, P. J. (2002). Social problems in oncology. British Journal of Cancer, 87(10), 1099–1104. CrossRef
- National Institute for Clinical Excellence. (2004). Guidance on cancer services: Improving supportive and palliative care for adults with cancer. Accessed January 2, 2012 from http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/live/10893/28816/28816.pdf.
- Wright, E. P., Kiely, M., Johnston, C., Smith, A. B., Cull, A., & Selby, P. J. (2005). Development and evaluation of an instrument to assess social difficulties in routine oncology practice. Quality of Life Research, 14(2), 373–386. CrossRef
- Wright, P., Smith, A., Roberts, K., Selby, P., & Velikova, G. (2007). Screening for social difficulties in cancer patients: Clinical utility of the Social Difficulties Inventory. British Journal of Cancer, 97(8), 1063–1070. CrossRef
- Wright, P., Marshall, L., Smith, A. B., Velikova, G., & Selby, P. (2008). Measurement and interpretation of social distress using the social difficulties inventory (SDI). European Journal of Cancer, 44(11), 1529–1535. CrossRef
- Wright, P., Smith, A. B., Keding, A., & Velikova, G. (2011). The social difficulties inventory (SDI): Development of subscales and scoring guidance for staff. Psycho-Oncology, 20(1), 36–43. CrossRef
- Hanif, N., Dharni, N., Smith, A., Chattoo, S., Velikova, G., Bradley, C., et al. (2011). Translation of the social difficulties inventory (SDI-21) into three south Asian languages and preliminary evaluation of SDI-21(Urdu). Quality of Life Research, 20(3), 431–438. CrossRef
- Simon, A. E., & Wardle, J. (2008). Socioeconomic disparities in psychosocial wellbeing in cancer patients. European Journal of Cancer, 44(4), 572–578. CrossRef
- Stevinson, C., Lydon, A., & Amir, Z. (2011). Cancer support group participation in the United Kingdom: A national survey. Supportive Care in Cancer, 19(5), 675–683. CrossRef
- Department of Health, Macmillan Cancer Support and NHS Improvement. (2010). National cancer survivorship initiative vision. Accessed January 2, 2012 from http://www.ncsi.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/NCSI-Vision-Document.pdf.
- Greenlaw, C., & Brown-Welty, S. (2009). A comparison of web-based and paper-based survey methods: Testing assumptions of survey mode and response cost. Evaluation Review, 33(5), 464–480. CrossRef
- Gwaltney, C. J., Shields, A. L., & Shiffman, S. (2008). Equivalence of electronic and paper-and-pencil administration of patient-reported outcome measures: A meta-analytic review. Value in Health, 11(2), 322–333. CrossRef
- Maddams, J., Brewster, D., Gavin, A., Steward, J., Elliott, J., Utley, M., et al. (2009). Cancer prevalence in the United Kingdom: Estimates for 2008. British Journal of Cancer, 101(3), 541–547. CrossRef
- Office for National Statistics. (2010). Internet access: Households and individuals, 2010. Accessed January 2, 2012 from http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/rdit2/internet-access—households-and-individuals/2010/index.html.
- Coons, S. J., Gwaltney, C. J., Hays, R. D., Lundy, J. J., Sloan, J. A., Revicki, D. A., et al. (2009). Recommendations on evidence needed to support measurement equivalence between electronic and paper-based patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures: ISPOR ePRO good research practices task force report. Value in Health, 12(4), 419–429. CrossRef
- Cook, A. J., Roberts, D. A., Henderson, M. D., Van Winkle, L. C., Chastain, D. C., & Hamill-Ruth, R. J. (2004). Electronic pain questionnaires: A randomized, crossover comparison with paper questionnaires for chronic pain assessment. Pain, 110(1–2), 310–317. CrossRef
- Bishop, F. L., Lewis, G., Harris, S., McKay, N., Prentice, P., Thiel, H., et al. (2010). A within-subjects trial to test the equivalence of online and paper outcome measures: The Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 11, 113. CrossRef
- Velikova, G., Wright, E. P., Smith, A. B., Cull, A., Gould, A., Forman, D., et al. (1999). Automated collection of quality-of-life data: A comparison of paper and computer touch-screen questionnaires. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 17(3), 998–1007.
- Pocock, S. J. (1988). Clinical trials: A practical approach. New York: Wiley.
- Wu, R. C., Thorpe, K., Ross, H., Micevski, V., Marquez, C., & Straus, S. E. (2009). Comparing administration of questionnaires via the internet to pen-and-paper in patients with heart failure: Randomized controlled trial. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 11, e3. CrossRef
- The English Indices of Deprivation 2010. Accessed February 7, 2012 from http://www.communities.gov.uk/publications/corporate/statistics/indices2010.
- Score equivalence of electronic and paper versions of the Social Difficulties Inventory (SDI-21): a randomised crossover trial in cancer patients
Quality of Life Research
Volume 22, Issue 6 , pp 1435-1440
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Social Difficulties Inventory
- Electronic questionnaire
- Score equivalence
- Quality of life
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Psychosocial Oncology and Clinical Practice Research Group, University of Leeds, Level 3, Bexley Wing, St James’s Institute of Oncology, Leeds, LS9 7TF, UK
- 2. Clinical Trials Research Unit, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK