Migrating from a legacy fixed-format measure to CAT administration: calibrating the PHQ-9 to the PROMIS depression measures
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
We provide detailed instructions for analyzing patient-reported outcome (PRO) data collected with an existing (legacy) instrument so that scores can be calibrated to the PRO Measurement Information System (PROMIS) metric. This calibration facilitates migration to computerized adaptive test (CAT) PROMIS data collection, while facilitating research using historical legacy data alongside new PROMIS data.
A cross-sectional convenience sample (n = 2,178) from the Universities of Washington and Alabama at Birmingham HIV clinics completed the PROMIS short form and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) depression symptom measures between August 2008 and December 2009. We calibrated the tests using item response theory. We compared measurement precision of the PHQ-9, the PROMIS short form, and simulated PROMIS CAT.
Dimensionality analyses confirmed the PHQ-9 could be calibrated to the PROMIS metric. We provide code used to score the PHQ-9 on the PROMIS metric. The mean standard errors of measurement were 0.49 for the PHQ-9, 0.35 for the PROMIS short form, and 0.37, 0.28, and 0.27 for 3-, 8-, and 9-item-simulated CATs.
The strategy described here facilitated migration from a fixed-format legacy scale to PROMIS CAT administration and may be useful in other settings.
- Cella, D, Yount, S, Rothrock, N, Gershon, R, Cook, K, Reeve, B (2007) The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS): Progress of an NIH Roadmap cooperative group during its first two years. Medical Care 45: pp. S3-S11 CrossRef
- Reeve, BB, Hays, RD, Bjorner, JB, Cook, KF, Crane, PK, Teresi, JA (2007) Psychometric evaluation and calibration of health-related quality of life item banks: Plans for the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Medical Care 45: pp. S22-S31 CrossRef
- Cella, D., Riley, W. T., Stone, A., Rothrock, N., Reeve, B., Yount, S. E., et al. (in press). Initial item banks and first wave testing of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) network: 2005–2008. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology.
- Bjorner, JB, Kosinski, M, Ware, JE (2003) Calibration of an item pool for assessing the burden of headaches: An application of item response theory to the headache impact test (HIT). Quality of Life Research 12: pp. 913-933 CrossRef
- Bjorner, JB, Chang, CH, Thissen, D, Reeve, BB (2007) Developing tailored instruments: Item banking and computerized adaptive assessment. Quality of Life Research 16: pp. 95-108 CrossRef
- Cella, D, Gershon, R, Lai, JS, Choi, S (2007) The future of outcomes measurement: Item banking, tailored short-forms, and computerized adaptive assessment. Quality of Life Research 16: pp. 133-141 CrossRef
- Fayers, PM (2007) Applying item response theory and computer adaptive testing: The challenges for health outcomes assessment. Quality of Life Research 16: pp. 187-194 CrossRef
- Choi, SW, Reise, SP, Pilkonis, PA, Hays, RD, Cella, D (2010) Efficiency of static and computer adaptive short forms compared to full-length measures of depressive symptoms. Quality of Life Research 19: pp. 125-136 CrossRef
- Dorans, NJ (2007) Linking scores from multiple health outcome instruments. Quality of Life Research 16: pp. 85-94 CrossRef
- Crane, PK, Narasimhalu, K, Gibbons, LE, Mungas, DM, Haneuse, S, Larson, EB (2008) Item response theory facilitated cocalibrating cognitive tests and reduced bias in estimated rates of decline. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 61: pp. 1018-1027 CrossRef
- Bjorner, JB, Kosinski, M, Ware, JE (2003) Using item response theory to calibrate the Headache Impact Test (HIT) to the metric of traditional headache scales. Quality of Life Research 12: pp. 981-1002 CrossRef
- Ware, JE, Kosinski, M, Bjorner, JB, Bayliss, MS, Batenhorst, A, Dahlof, CG (2003) Applications of computerized adaptive testing (CAT) to the assessment of headache impact. Quality of Life Research 12: pp. 935-952 CrossRef
- Kitahata, MM, Rodriguez, B, Haubrich, R, Boswell, S, Mathews, WC, Lederman, MM (2008) Cohort profile: The Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems. International Journal of Epidemiology 37: pp. 948-955 CrossRef
- Lawrence, ST, Willig, JH, Crane, HM, Ye, J, Aban, I, Lober, W (2010) Routine, self-administered, touch-screen, computer-based suicidal ideation assessment linked to automated response team notification in an HIV primary care setting. Clinical Infectious Diseases 50: pp. 1165-1173 CrossRef
- Crane, HM, Lober, W, Webster, E, Harrington, RD, Crane, PK, Davis, TE (2007) Routine collection of patient-reported outcomes in an HIV clinic setting: The first 100 patients. Current HIV Research 5: pp. 109-118 CrossRef
- Pilkonis, P. A., Choi, S. W., Reise, S. P., Stover, A. M., Riley, W. T., & Cella, D. (under review). Item banks for measuring emotional distress from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Depression, Anxiety, and Anger.
- Kroenke, K, Spitzer, RL, Williams, JB, Lowe, B (2010) The Patient Health Questionnaire Somatic, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptom Scales: A systematic review. General Hospital Psychiatry 32: pp. 345-359 CrossRef
- Spitzer, RL, Kroenke, K, Williams, JB (1999) Validation and utility of a self-report version of PRIME-MD: the PHQ primary care study. Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders. Patient Health Questionnaire. JAMA 282: pp. 1737-1744 CrossRef
- Crane, PK, Gibbons, LE, Willig, JH, Mugavero, MJ, Lawrence, ST, Schumacher, JE (2010) Measuring depression and depressive symptoms in HIV-infected patients as part of routine clinical care using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). AIDS Care 22: pp. 874-885 CrossRef
- Teresi, JA, Ocepek-Welikson, K, Kleinman, M, Eimicke, JP, Crane, PK, Jones, RN (2009) Analysis of differential item functioning in the depression item bank from the Patient Reported Outcome Measurement Information System (PROMIS): An item response theory approach. Psychology Science Quarterly 51: pp. 148-180
- Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2007). Mplus: Statistical analysis with latent variables. Los Angeles, CA: Muthén & Muthén.
- Wirth, RJ, Edwards, MC (2007) Item factor analysis: Current approaches and future directions. Psychol Methods 12: pp. 58-79 CrossRef
- Forero, CG, Maydeu-Olivares, A (2009) Estimation of IRT graded response models: Limited versus full information methods. Psychological Methods 14: pp. 275-299 CrossRef
- Samejima, F. (1969). Estimation of latent ability using a response pattern of graded scores. Psychometrika Monograph, No. 17.
- Stata statistical software: Release 11. StataCorp LP, College Station, TX
- Muraki, E, Bock, D (2003) PARSCALE for Windows. Scientific Software International, Chicago
- Kroenke, K, Spitzer, RL, Williams, JB (2001) The PHQ-9: Validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine 16: pp. 606-613 CrossRef
- Choi, SW (2009) Firestar: Computerized adaptive testing (CAT) simulation program for polytomous IRT models. Applied Psychological Measurement 33: pp. 644-645 CrossRef
- Fries, JF, Cella, D, Rose, M, Krishnan, E, Bruce, B (2009) Progress in assessing physical function in arthritis: PROMIS short forms and computerized adaptive testing. Journal of Rheumatology 36: pp. 2061-2066 CrossRef
- Rose, M, Bjorner, JB, Becker, J, Fries, JF, Ware, JE (2008) Evaluation of a preliminary physical function item bank supported the expected advantages of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 61: pp. 17-33 CrossRef
- Crane, HM, Grunfeld, C, Harrington, RD, Uldall, KK, Ciechanowski, PS, Kitahata, MM (2008) Lipoatrophy among HIV-infected patients is associated with higher levels of depression than lipohypertrophy. HIV Medicine 9: pp. 780-786 CrossRef
- Hansson, M, Chotai, J, Nordstom, A, Bodlund, O (2009) Comparison of two self-rating scales to detect depression: HADS and PHQ-9. British Journal of General Practice 59: pp. e283-e288 CrossRef
- Wittkampf, KA, Naeije, L, Schene, AH, Huyser, J, Weert, HC (2007) Diagnostic accuracy of the mood module of the Patient Health Questionnaire: A systematic review. General Hospital Psychiatry 29: pp. 388-395 CrossRef
- Coons, SJ, Gwaltney, CJ, Hays, RD, Lundy, JJ, Sloan, JA, Revicki, DA (2009) Recommendations on evidence needed to support measurement equivalence between electronic and paper-based patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures: ISPOR ePRO Good Research Practices Task Force report. Value Health 12: pp. 419-429 CrossRef
- Migrating from a legacy fixed-format measure to CAT administration: calibrating the PHQ-9 to the PROMIS depression measures
Quality of Life Research
Volume 20, Issue 9 , pp 1349-1357
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Computerized adaptive testing
- Item banks
- Item response theory
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. General Internal Medicine, University of Washington, Box 359780, Harborview Medical Center, 325 Ninth Ave, Seattle, WA, 98104, USA
- 2. Allergy and Infectious Diseases, University of Washington, Box 359931, Harborview Medical Center, 325 Ninth Ave, Seattle, WA, 98104, USA
- 3. Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 Third Ave S, CCB 142, Birmingham, AL, 35294-2050, USA
- 4. Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Disease, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 Third Ave S, CCB 178, Birmingham, AL, 35294-2050, USA
- 5. Department of Health Services, University of Washington, Box 359455, 4333 Brooklyn Ave NE, Seattle, WA, 98195-9455, USA
- 6. Division of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1717 11th Avenue South, 616 Medical Towers Building, Birmingham, AL, 35209, USA
- 7. Center for AIDS Research, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 845 19th Street South, BBRB 256, Birmingham, AL, 35294-2050, USA