Adaptation and cognitive testing of physical activity measures for use with young, school-aged children and their parents
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Increasing physical activity is one way to address the public health concern of childhood obesity. Physical activity measures for use with young, school-aged children are limited.
This study adapted two existing activity measures for young children, specifically self-efficacy and 7-day recall of physical activity.
Through expert review and cognitive testing, the scales were adapted for use with young, school-aged children (ages 7–9). This article describes how the measures were adapted to insure comprehension of the child self-report measures. Reliability analyses provide support for their use in this population [Cronbach’s alpha = 0.76 for the self-efficacy scale; moderate correlation between parent report and child report of child physical activity over the past week (rho = 0.52, P < 0.01].
Suggestions are offered for researchers interested in using similar methods when designing and adapting physical activity measures for new populations.
- Ainsworth, B., Haskell, W., Herrmann, S., Meckes, N., Bassett, D., Tudor-Locke, C., et al. (2011). 2011 Compendium of physical activities: A second update of codes and MET values. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise.
- Alaimo, K., Olson, C. M., & Frongillo, E. A. (1999). Importance of cognitive testing for survey items: An example from food security questionnaires. Journal of nutrition education, 31(5), 269–275. CrossRef
- Alomari, M. A., Keewan, E. F., Qhatan, R., Amer, A., Khabour, O. F., Maayah, M. F., et al. (2011). Blood pressure and circulatory relationships with physical activity level in young normotensive individuals: IPAQ validity and reliability considerations. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, 33(5), 345–353.
- Bartholomew, J. B., et al. (2006). Validation of the physical activity self-efficacy scale: Testing measurement invariance between Hispanic and Caucasian children. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 3(1), 70–78.
- Belanger-Gravel, A., & Godin, G. (2010). Key beliefs for targeted interventions to increase physical activity in children: Analyzing data from an extended version of the theory of planned behaviour. International Journal of Pediatrics, 2010, 893854. CrossRef
- Borgers, N., de Leeuw, E., & Hox, J. (2000). Children as respondents in survey research: Cognitive development and response quality 1. Bulletin de Methodologie Sociologique, 66(1), 60.
- CARDIAC WV Project: Results. (2010). From http://cardiacwv.org/results.php. Retrieved 6 Jan 2011.
- Castelli, D. M., Hillman, C. H., Buck, S. M., & Erwin, H. E. (2007). Physical fitness and academic achievement in third- and fifth-grade students. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 29(2), 239–252.
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Trends in the prevalence of obesity, dietary behaviors, and weight control practices, national YRBS: 1991—2009. From http://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/yrbs/pdf/us_obesity_trend_yrbs.pdf. Retrieved May, 2011.
- Choi, B. C. K., & Pak, A. W. P. (2005). A catalog of biases in questionnaires. Preventing Chronic Disease, 2(1), A13.
- Chomitz, V. R., Slining, M. M., McGowan, R. J., Mitchell, S. E., Dawson, G. F., & Hacker, K. A. (2009). Is there a relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement? Positive results from public school children in the northeastern United States. Journal of School Health, 79(1), 30–37. CrossRef
- Craig, C. L., Marshall, A. L., Sjöström, M., Bauman, A. E., Booth, M. L., Ainsworth, B. E., et al. (2003). International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 35(8), 1381.
- De Vellis, R. F. (2003). Scale development: Theory and applications (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- Dietrich, H., & Ehrlenspiel, F. (2010). Cognitive Interviewing: A qualitative tool for improving questionnaires in sport science. Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 14(1), 51–60. CrossRef
- Dzewaltowski, D. A., et al. (2010). Children’s self-efficacy and proxy efficacy for after-school physical activity. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 11, 100–106.
- FDA. (2006). Guidance for industry: Patient-reported outcome measures: Use in medical product development to support labeling claims: Draft guidance. Health Qual Life Outcomes, 4, 79. CrossRef
- Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., & Viswanath, K. (2008). Health behavior and health education: Theory, research, and practice (4th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
- Gustafson, S. L., & Rhodes, R. E. (2006). Parental correlates of physical activity in children and early adolescents. Sports Medicine, 36(1), 79–97. CrossRef
- Haerens, L., Cerin, E., Maes, L., Cardon, G., Deforche, B., & De Bourdeaudhuij, I. (2008). Explaining the effect of a 1-year intervention promoting physical activity in middle schools: A mediation analysis. Public Health Nutrition, 11(5), 501–512. CrossRef
- Hagstromer, M., Ainsworth, B. E., Oja, P., & Sjostrom, M. (2010). Comparison of a subjective and an objective measure of physical activity in a population sample. Journal of Physical Activity and Health, 7(4), 541–550.
- Heitzler, C. D., Martin, S. L., Duke, J., & Huhman, M. (2006). Correlates of physical activity in a national sample of children aged 9–13 years. Preventive Medicine, 42(4), 254–260. CrossRef
- Ince, M. L. (2008). Use of a social cognitive theory-based physical-activity intervention on health-promoting behaviors of university students. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 107(3), 833–836. CrossRef
- Irwin, D. E., Varni, J. W., Yeatts, K., & DeWalt, D. A. (2009). Cognitive interviewing methodology in the development of a pediatric item bank: A patient reported outcomes measurement information system (PROMIS) study. Health & Quality of Life Outcomes, 7, 3. CrossRef
- Janssen, I., & LeBlanc, A. G. (2010). Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 7(1), 40. CrossRef
- Katzmarzyk, P. T., Baur, L. A., Blair, S. N., Lambert, E. V., Oppert, J. M., & Riddoch, C. (2008). Expert panel report from the international conference on physical activity and obesity in children, 24–27 June 2007, Toronto, Ontario. Summary statement and recommendations. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, 33(2), 371–388.
- Kohl, H. W., Fulton, J. E., & Caspersen, C. J. (2000). Assessment of physical activity among children and adolescents: A review and synthesis. Preventive Medicine, 31(2), S54–S76. CrossRef
- Lee, S. H. (2006). Constructing effective questionnaires. In J. A. Pershing (Ed.), Handbook of human performance technology (3rd ed., pp. 760–779). San Francisco: Pfeiffer.
- Liu, J., Jones, S. J., Sun, H., Probst, J. C., & Cavicchia, P. (2010). Diet, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors as risk factors for childhood obesity: An urban and rural comparison. Columbia, SC: South Carolina Rural Health Research Center.
- Loprinzi, P. D., & Trost, S. G. (2010). Parental influences on physical activity behavior in preschool children. Preventive Medicine, 50(3), 129–133. CrossRef
- McAuley, E., & Blissmer, B. (2000). Self-efficacy determinants and consequences of physical activity. Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 28(2), 85–88.
- Metallinos-Katsaras, E., Taft, C., & Gallivan, P. (2000). In Massachusetts Department of Public Health (Ed.), Massachusetts PNSS and PedNSS demonstration sites: Data quality and expansion project.
- Michie, S., Abraham, C., Whittington, C., McAteer, J., & Gupta, S. (2009). Effective techniques in healthy eating and physical activity interventions: A meta-regression. Health Psychology, 28(6), 690–701. CrossRef
- Mulcahey, M. J., Calhoun, C., Riley, A., & Haley, S. M. (2009). Children’s reports of activity and participation after sustaining a spinal cord injury: A cognitive interviewing study. Developmental Neurorehabilitation, 12(4), 191–200. CrossRef
- O’Connor, T. M., Jago, R., & Baranowski, T. (2009). Engaging parents to increase youth physical activity a systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 37(2), 141–149. CrossRef
- Pan, S. Y., Cameron, C., Desmeules, M., Morrison, H., Craig, C. L., & Jiang, X. (2009). Individual, social, environmental, and physical environmental correlates with physical activity among Canadians: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 9, 21. CrossRef
- Presser, S. (2004). Methods for testing and evaluating survey questionnaires Hoboken. New Jersey: Wiley. CrossRef
- Riley, A. W. (2004). Evidence that school-age children can self-report on their health. Ambulatory Pediatrics, 4(4 Suppl), 371–376. CrossRef
- Sallis, J. F., Condon, S. A., Goggin, K. J., Roby, J. J., Kolody, B., & Alcaraz, J. E. (1993). The development of self-administered physical activity surveys for 4th grade students. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 64(1), 25–31.
- Sallis, J. F., Prochaska, J. J., Taylor, W. C., Hill, J. O., & Geraci, J. C. (1999). Correlates of physical activity in a national sample of girls and boys in grades 4 through 12. Health Psychology, 18(4), 410–415. CrossRef
- Salmon, J., Brown, H., & Hume, C. (2009). Effects of strategies to promote children’s physical activity on potential mediators. International Journal of Obesity (London), 33(Suppl 1), S66–S73.
- Southall, J. E., Steele, J. R., & Okely, A. D. (2004). Actual and perceived physical competence in overweight and nonoverweight children. Pediatric Exercise Science, 16(1), 15.
- Trost, S. G., Sallis, J. F., Pate, R. R., Freedson, P. S., Taylor, W. C., & Dowda, M. (2003). Evaluating a model of parental influence on youth physical activity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 25(4), 277–282. CrossRef
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, & Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2011). Healthy people 2020. From http://www.healthypeople.gov/.
- Upton, P., Lawford, J., & Eiser, C. (2008). Parent-child agreement across child health-related quality of life instruments: A review of the literature. Quality of Life Research, 17(6), 895–913. CrossRef
- Warburton, D. E., Nicol, C. W., & Bredin, S. S. (2006). Health benefits of physical activity: The evidence. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 174(6), 801–809. CrossRef
- Ward-Begnoche, W. L., Pasold, T. L., McNeill, V., Peck, K. D., Razzaq, S., Fry, E. M., et al. (2009). Childhood obesity treatment literature review. In Handbook of obesity intervention for the lifespan (pp. 5–20). New York: Springer.
- Williams, S. L., & French, D. P. (2011). What are the most effective intervention techniques for changing physical activity self-efficacy and physical activity behaviour—and are they the same? Health Education Research, 26(2), 308–322. CrossRef
- Willis, G. B. (2005). Cognitive interviewing: A tool for improving questionnaire design: Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
- Adaptation and cognitive testing of physical activity measures for use with young, school-aged children and their parents
Quality of Life Research
Volume 21, Issue 10 , pp 1815-1828
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Cognitive testing
- Physical activity
- Scale development
- Industry Sectors