Quality of Life Research

, Volume 20, Issue 7, pp 1035–1042

The development and validation of a general measure of well-being: the BBC well-being scale


DOI: 10.1007/s11136-010-9841-z

Cite this article as:
Kinderman, P., Schwannauer, M., Pontin, E. et al. Qual Life Res (2011) 20: 1035. doi:10.1007/s11136-010-9841-z



The concept of maximising well-being, as opposed to merely treating mental disorder, is a powerful current theme in the area of mental health. Clearly this emphasises the need for appropriate valid and reliable measures of general well-being. This paper examines the appropriateness of a number of measures in this area and concludes that existing assessment tools fail to address the full range of aspects of personal well-being. This paper therefore presents the psychometric properties, validity and reliability of a new measure of well-being—the BBC Well-being Scale.


A total of 1,940 participants completed the new measure, the Goldberg scales of anxiety and depression, the ‘List of Threatening Experiences’ life events scale, a modified version of the Response Styles Questionnaire and a modified version of the Internal, Personal and Situational Attributions Questionnaire presented via the internet.


Exploratory factor-analysis suggested a three-factor solution including themes of psychological well-being, physical health and well-being and relationships. The total 24-item scale had good internal consistency (α = .935) and correlated significantly with key demographic variables and measures of concurrent validity.


The new measure—the BBC Well-being Scale—is recommended for research and clinical purposes.


Well beingMental healthMeasurementQuality of lifeSelf-esteemQuestionnaire

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Kinderman
    • 1
  • M. Schwannauer
    • 1
  • E. Pontin
    • 1
  • S. Tai
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Psychology, Health and SocietyUniversity of LiverpoolLiverpoolUK