PedsQL™ Cognitive Functioning Scale in pediatric liver transplant recipients: feasibility, reliability, and validity
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
The PedsQL™ (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™) is a modular instrument designed to measure health-related quality of life and disease-specific symptoms. The PedsQL™ Cognitive Functioning Scale was developed as a brief generic symptom-specific instrument to measure cognitive functioning. The objective of the present study was to determine the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the PedsQL™ Cognitive Functioning Scale in pediatric liver transplant recipients.
The 6-item PedsQL™ Cognitive Functioning Scale and the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales were completed by pediatric liver transplant recipients ages 8–18 years (n = 215) and parents of pediatric liver transplant recipients ages 2–18 years (n = 502). Both patient self-report and parent proxy-report were available for 212 cases. The 72-item Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF), a widely validated measure of executive functioning, was completed by 100 parents and 56 teachers on a subset of patients.
The PedsQL™ Cognitive Functioning Scale demonstrated minimal missing responses (0.0%, child report, 0.67%, parent report), achieved excellent reliability (α = 0.88 child report, 0.94 parent report), distinguished between pediatric patients with liver transplants and healthy children supporting discriminant validity, and was significantly correlated with the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales and the BRIEF supporting construct and concurrent validity, respectively. Pediatric liver transplants recipients experienced cognitive functioning comparable to long-term pediatric cancer survivors.
The results demonstrate the feasibility, reliability, discriminant, construct, and concurrent validity of the PedsQL™ Cognitive Functioning Scale in pediatric liver transplant recipients.
- Weissberg-Benchell, J., Zielinski, T. E., Rodgers, S., Greenley, R. N., Askenazi, D., Goldstein, S. L., et al. (2010). Pediatric health-related quality of life: Feasibility, reliability and validity of the PedsQL™ Transplant Module. American Journal of Transplantation, 10, 1677–1685. CrossRef
- Alonso, E. M., Limbers, C. A., Neighbors, K., Martz, K., Bucuvalas, J. C., Webb, T., et al. (2010). Cross-sectional analysis of health-related quality of life in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Journal of Pediatrics, 156, 270–276. CrossRef
- Gilmour, S., Adkinsb, R., Liddellb, G. A., Jhangric, G., & Robertsond, C. M. (2009). Assessment of psychoeducational outcomes after pediatric liver transplant. American Journal of Transplantation, 9, 294–300. CrossRef
- Krull, K., Fuchs, C., Yurk, H., Boone, P., & Alonso, E. M. (2003). Neurocognitive outcome in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Pediatric Transplantation, 7, 111–118. CrossRef
- Adeback, A., Nemeth, A., & Fischler, B. (2003). Cognitive and emotional outcome after pediatric liver transplantation. Pediatric Transplantation, 7, 385–389. CrossRef
- Kaller, T., Schulz, K., Sander, K., Boeck, A., Rogiers, X., & Burdelski, M. (2005). Cognitive abilities in children after liver transplantation. Transplantation, 79, 1252–1256. CrossRef
- Sorensen, L. G., Neighbors, K., Martz, K., Zelko, F., Bucuvalas, J. C., & Alonso, E. M. (in press). Cognitive and academic outcomes after pediatric liver transplantation: Functional outcomes group (FOG) results. American Journal of Transplantation.
- Varni, J. W., Burwinkle, T. M., Katz, E. R., Meeske, K., & Dickinson, P. (2002). The PedsQL™ in pediatric cancer: Reliability and validity of The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ Generic Core Scales, Multidimensional Fatigue Scale, and cancer module. Cancer, 94, 2090–2106. CrossRef
- McCarthy, M. L., MacKenzie, E. J., Durbin, D. R., Aitken, M. E., Jaffe, K. M., Paidas, C. N., et al. (2005). The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory: An evaluation of its reliability and validity for children with traumatic brain injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 86, 1901–1909. CrossRef
- Suchy, Y. (2009). Executive functioning: Overview, assessment, and research issues for non-neuropsychologists. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 37, 106–116. CrossRef
- Varni, J. W., Burwinkle, T. M., & Szer, I. S. (2004). The PedsQL™ Multidimensional Fatigue Scale in pediatric rheumatology: Reliability and validity. Journal of Rheumatology, 31, 2494–2500.
- Palmer, S. N., Meeske, K. A., Katz, E. R., Burwinkle, T. M., & Varni, J. W. (2007). The PedsQL™ brain tumor module: Initial reliability and validity. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 49, 287–293. CrossRef
- Gold, J. I., Mahrer, N. E., Yee, J., & Palermo, T. M. (2009). Pain, fatigue, and health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with chronic pain. Clinical Journal of Pain, 25, 407–412. CrossRef
- Varni, J. W., Limbers, C. A., Bryant, W. P., & Wilson, D. P. (2009). The PedsQL™ Multidimensional Fatigue Scale in type 1 diabetes: Feasibility, reliability, and validity. Pediatric Diabetes, 10, 321–328. CrossRef
- Varni, J. W., Limbers, C. A., Bryant, W. P., & Wilson, D. P. (2010). The PedsQL™ Multidimensional Fatigue Scale in pediatric obesity: Feasibility, reliability, and validity. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity, 5, 34–42. CrossRef
- Varni, J. W., Burwinkle, T. M., Limbers, C. A., & Szer, I. S. (2007). The PedsQL™ as a patient-reported outcome in children and adolescents with fibromyalgia: An analysis of OMERACT domains. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 5(9), 1–12. CrossRef
- Marcus, S. B., Strople, J. A., Neighbors, K., Weissberg-Benchell, J., Nelson, S. P., Limbers, C. A., et al. (2009). Fatigue and health-related quality of life in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 7, 554–561. CrossRef
- MacAllister, W. S., Christodoulou, C., Troxell, R., Milazzo, M., Block, P., Preston, T. E., et al. (2009). Fatigue and quality of life in pediatric multiple sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis, 15, 1502–1508. CrossRef
- Paulsen, E. K., Friedman, L. S., Myers, L. M., & Lynch, D. R. (2010). Health-related quality of life in children with Friedreich ataxia. Pediatric Neurology, 42, 335–337. CrossRef
- Dampier, C., Lieff, S., Lebeau, P., Rhee, S., McMurray, M., Rogers, Z., et al. (2010). Health-related quality of life in children with sickle cell disease: A report from the comprehensive sickle cell centers clinical trial consortium. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 55, 485–494. CrossRef
- Limbers, C. A., Heffer, R. W., & Varni, J. W. (2009). Health-related quality of life and cognitive functioning from the perspective of parents of school-aged children with Asperger’s Syndrome utilizing the PedsQL™. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1529–1541. CrossRef
- Fayers, P. M., & Hand, D. J. (1997). Factor analysis, causal indicators and quality of life. Quality of Life Research, 6, 139–150.
- Rubenstein, C. L., Varni, J. W., & Katz, E. R. (1990). Cognitive functioning in long-term survivors of childhood leukemia: A prospective analysis. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 11, 301–305. CrossRef
- Copeland, D. R. (1992). Neuropsychological and psychosocial effects of childhood leukemia and its treatment. CA-A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 42, 283–295. CrossRef
- Mulhern, R. K., Hancock, J., Fairclough, D., & Kun, L. (1992). Neuropsychological status of children treated for brain tumors: A critical review and integrative analysis. Medical and Pediatric Oncology, 20, 181–191. CrossRef
- Meadows, A. T., Massari, D. J., & Fergusson, J. (1981). Declines in IQ scores and cognitive dysfunctions in children with acute lymphocytic leukemia treated with cranial irradiation. Lancet, 2, 1015–1018. CrossRef
- Varni, J. W., Seid, M., & Kurtin, P. S. (2001). PedsQL™ 4.0: Reliability and validity of The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ version 4.0 Generic Core Scales in healthy and patient populations. Medical Care, 39, 800–812. CrossRef
- McHorney, C. A., Kosinski, M., & Ware, J. E. (1994). Comparisons of the costs and quality of norms for the SF-36 Health Survey collected by mail versus telephone interview: Results from a national survey. Medical Care, 32, 551–567. CrossRef
- Fairclough, D. L., & Cella, D. F. (1996). Functional assessment of cancer therapy (FACT-G): Non-response to individual questions. Quality of Life Research, 5, 321–329. CrossRef
- Gioia, G. A., Isquith, P. K., Guy, S. C., & Kenworthy, L. (2000). Behavior rating inventory of executive function. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
- Sesma, H. W., Slomine, B. S., Ding, R., & McCarthy, M. L. (2008). Executive functioning in the first year after pediatric traumatic brain injury. Pediatrics, 121, e1686–e1695. CrossRef
- McHorney, C. A., Ware, J. E., Lu, J. F. R., & Sherbourne, C. D. (1994). The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36): III. Tests of data quality, scaling assumptions, and reliability across diverse patient groups. Medical Care, 32, 40–66. CrossRef
- Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297–334. CrossRef
- Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. R. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
- McHorney, C. A., Ware, J. E., & Raczek, A. E. (1993). The MOS 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36): II. Psychometric and clinical tests of validity in measuring physical and mental health constructs. Medical Care, 31, 247–263. CrossRef
- Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
- Pedhazur, E. J., & Schmelkin, L. P. (1991). Measurement, design, and analysis: An integrated approach. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
- McGraw, K. O., & Wong, S. P. (1996). Forming inferences about some intraclass correlation coefficients. Psychological Methods, 1, 30–46. CrossRef
- Wilson, K. A., Dowling, A. J., Abdolell, M., & Tannock, I. F. (2001). Perception of quality of life by patients, partners and treating physicians. Quality of Life Research, 9, 1041–1052. CrossRef
- SPSS. (2008). SPSS 16.0 for windows. Chicago: SPSS, Inc.
- Upton, P., Lawford, J., & Eiser, C. (2008). Parent-child agreement across child health-related quality of life instruments: A review of the literature. Quality of Life Research, 17, 895–913. CrossRef
- Eiser, C., & Morse, R. (2001). Can parents rate their child’s health-related quality of life?: Results from a systematic review. Quality of Life Research, 10, 347–357. CrossRef
- Varni, J. W., Limbers, C. A., & Burwinkle, T. M. (2007). Parent proxy-report of their children’s health-related quality of life: An analysis of 13, 878 parents’ reliability and validity across age subgroups using the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 5(2), 1–10. CrossRef
- Varni, J. W., Burwinkle, T. M., & Seid, M. (2006). The PedsQL™ 4.0 as a school population health measure: Feasibility, reliability, and validity. Quality of Life Research, 15, 203–215. CrossRef
- Newman, D. A., Limbers, C. A., & Varni, J. W. (2010). Factorial invariance of child self-report across English and Spanish language groups in a Hispanic population utilizing the PedsQL™ 4.0 Generic Core Scales. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 26, 194–202. CrossRef
- Varni, J. W., Seid, M., & Rode, C. A. (1999). The PedsQL™: Measurement model for The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Medical Care, 37, 126–139. CrossRef
- PedsQL™ Cognitive Functioning Scale in pediatric liver transplant recipients: feasibility, reliability, and validity
Quality of Life Research
Volume 20, Issue 6 , pp 913-921
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Springer Netherlands
- Additional Links
- Cognitive functioning
- Liver transplant
- Executive functioning
- Quality of life
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Department of Landscape Architecture and Urban Planning, College of Architecture, Texas A&M University, 3137 TAMU, College Station, TX, 77843-3137, USA
- 2. Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA
- 3. Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Children’s Memorial Hospital, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA
- 4. Department of Pediatrics, Children’s Memorial Hospital, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA
- 5. EMMES Corporation, Rockville, MD, USA
- 6. Department of Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA