Original Paper

Quality of Life Research

, Volume 19, Issue 7, pp 1019-1024

First online:

Quality of life of individuals with and without facial feminization surgery or gender reassignment surgery

  • Tiffiny A. AinsworthAffiliated withDepartment of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, University of Connecticut Health Center
  • , Jeffrey H. SpiegelAffiliated withDivision of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Boston University School of Medicine Email author 

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Abstract

Objectives

To determine the self-reported quality of life of male-to-female (MTF) transgendered individuals and how this quality of life is influenced by facial feminization and gender reassignment surgery.

Methods

Facial Feminization Surgery outcomes evaluation survey and the SF-36v2 quality of life survey were administered to male-to-female transgender individuals via the Internet and on paper. A total of 247 MTF participants were enrolled in the study.

Results

Mental health-related quality of life was statistically diminished (P < 0.05) in transgendered women without surgical intervention compared to the general female population and transwomen who had gender reassignment surgery (GRS), facial feminization surgery (FFS), or both. There was no statistically significant difference in the mental health-related quality of life among transgendered women who had GRS, FFS, or both. Participants who had FFS scored statistically higher (P < 0.01) than those who did not in the FFS outcomes evaluation.

Conclusions

Transwomen have diminished mental health-related quality of life compared with the general female population. However, surgical treatments (e.g. FFS, GRS, or both) are associated with improved mental health-related quality of life.

Keywords

Facial feminization surgery MTF transgender Quality of life Gender reassignment surgery