Is the standard SF-12 Health Survey valid and equivalent for a Chinese population?
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
Introduction: Chinese is the world’s largest ethnic group but few health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures have been tested on them. The aim of this study was to determine if the standard SF-12 was valid and equivalent for a Chinese population. Methods: The SF-36 data of 2410 Chinese adults randomly selected from the general population of Hong Kong (HK) were analysed. The Chinese (HK) specific SF-12 items and scoring algorithm were derived from the HK Chinese population data by multiple regressions. The SF-36 PCS and MCS scores were used as criteria to assess the content and criterion validity of the SF-12. The standard and Chinese (HK) specific SF-12 PCS and MCS scores were compared for equivalence. Results: The standard SF-12 explained 82% and 89% of the variance of the SF-36 PCS and MCS scores, respectively, and the effect size differences between the standard SF-36 and SF-12 scores were less than 0.3. Six of the Chinese (HK) specific SF-12 items were different from those of the standard SF-12, but the effect size differences between the Chinese (HK) specific and standard SF-12 scores were mostly less than 0.3. Conclusions: The standard SF-12 was valid and equivalent for the Chinese, which would enable more Chinese to be included in clinical trials that measure HRQoL.
- Lam, CLK, Gandek, B, Ren, XS, Chan, MS (1998) Tests of scaling assumptions and construct validity of the Chinese (HK) version of the SF-36 Health Survey.. J Clin Epidemiol 51: pp. 1139-1147
- Lam, CLK (2003) Reliability and construct validity of the Chinese (Hong Kong) SF-36 for patients in primary care.. H K Pract 25: pp. 468-475
- Lam CLK, Tse EYY, Gandek B. Construct validity, reliability and equivalence of the SF-36 Physical and Mental Health Summary Scales in a Chinese population (under review).
- Thumboo, J, Fong, KY, Chan, SP (2002) The equivalence of English and Chinese SF-36 versions in bilingual Singapore Chinese.. Qual Life Res 11: pp. 495-503
- Thumboo, J, Fong, KY, Machin, D (2001) A community-based study of scaling assumptions and construct validity of the English (UK) and Chinese (HK) SF-36 in Singapore.. Qual Life Res 10: pp. 175-188
- Ware, JE, Kosinski, M, Keller, SD eds. (1995) How to Score the SF-12 Physical and Mental Health Summary Scales.. The Health Institute, New England Medical Center, Boston
- Ware, JE, Kosinski, M, Keller, SD (1996) A 12-item Short-Form Health Survey. Construction of scales and preliminary tests of reliability and validity.. Med Care 34: pp. 220-233 CrossRef
- Gandek, B, Ware, JE, Aaronson, NK (1998) Cross-validation of item selection and scoring for the SF-12 Health Survey in nine countries: Results from the IQOLA Project.. J Clin Epidemiol 51: pp. 1171-1178 CrossRef
- Ware, JE, Kosinski, M Norm-based scoring for physical and mental summary measures.. In: Ware, JE, Kosinski, M eds. (2001) SF-36 Physical & Mental Health Summary Scales: A Manual for Users of Version 1. Lincoln. QualityMetric, Inc., Rhode Island, pp. 28-35
- Guillemin, F, Bombardier, C, Beaton, D (1993) Cross-cultural adaptation of health-related quality of life measures: Literature review and proposed guidelines.. J Clin Epidemiol 46: pp. 1417-1432 CrossRef
- McColl, E, Christiansen, T, Konig-Zahn, C Making the right choice of outcome measure.. In: Hutchinson, A, Bentzen, N, Konig-Zahn, C eds. (1997) Cross Cultural Health Outcome Assessment: A User’s Guide.. European Research Group on Health Outcomes, Ruinen, The Netherlands, pp. 12-26
- Lim, LLY, Fisher, JD (1999) Use of the 12-item Short-Form (SF-12) Health Survey in an Australian heart and stroke population.. Qual Life Res 8: pp. 1-8
- Bjorner, JB, Kreiner, S, Ware, JE, Damsgaard, MT, Berch, P (1998) Differential item functioning in the Danish translation of the SF-36.. J Clin Epidemiol 51: pp. 1189-1202
- Herdman, M, Fox-Rushby, J, Badia, X (1998) A model of equivalence in the cultural adaptation of HRQoL instruments: The universalist approach.. Qual Life Res 7: pp. 323-335
- Bullinger, M Ensuring international equivalence of quality of life measures: Problems and approaches to solutions.. In: Orley, J, Kuyken, W eds. (1994) Quality of Life Assessment: International Perspectives.. Springler-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 33-40
- Lam, CLK, Lauder, IJ, Lam, TP, Gandek, B (1999) Population based norming of the Chinese (HK) version of the SF-36 Health Survey.. H K Pract 21: pp. 460-470
- Lam, CLK, Fong, DYT, Lauder, IJ, Lam, TP (2002) The effect of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) on health service utilisation of a Chinese population.. Soc Sci Med 55: pp. 1635-1646
- Census & Statistics Department Hong Kong, Main Tables of the 2001 Population Census. Hong Kong: Census & Statistics Department, HKSAR; 2002.
- Gandek, B, Ware, JE (1998) Methods for validating and norming translations of health status questionnaires: The IQOLA Project approach.. J Clin Epidemiol 51: pp. 953-959
- Lam, CLK, Lauder, IJ, Lam, TPD (2003) The impact of chronic diseases on health services and quality of life of a Chinese population.. Asia Pacific Fam Med 2: pp. 98-106
- Kazis, LE, Anderson, JJ, Meenan, RF (1989) Effect sizes for interpreting changes in health status.. Med Care 27: pp. S178-S189
- Wyrwich, KW, Nienaber, NA, Tierney, WM, Wolinsky, FD (1999) Linking clinical relevance and statistical significance in evaluating intra-individual changes in health-related quality of life.. Med Care 37: pp. 469-478
- Cohen, J The t-test for measures.. In: Cohen, J eds. (1988) Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences.. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, New Jersey, pp. 19-74
- Norman, GR, Sridhar, FG, Walter, SD, Guyatt, GH (2001) The relation of distribution- and anchor-based approaches in interpretation of changes in health related quality of life.. Med Care 39: pp. 1039-1047
- Holman, R, Lindeboom, R, Vermeulen, M, Glas, CAW, Haan, RJ (2002) The Amsterdam Linear Disability Score (ALDS) Project, differential item functioning with regard to gender.. QOL Newsleter 29: pp. 13-14
- Skevington, SM (2002) Advancing cross-cultural research on quality of life: Observations drawn from the WHOQoL development.. Qual Life Res 11: pp. 135-144
- Skevington, SM, Bradshaw, J, Saxena, S (1999) Selecting national items for the WHOQoL: Conceptual and psychometric considerations.. Soc Sci Med 48: pp. 473-487
- Is the standard SF-12 Health Survey valid and equivalent for a Chinese population?
Quality of Life Research
Volume 14, Issue 2 , pp 539-547
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Health-related quality of life
- Industry Sectors