Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 67, Issue 2, pp 105–110

Supplementation of Milled Chia Seeds Increases Plasma ALA and EPA in Postmenopausal Women

  • Fuxia Jin
  • David C. Nieman
  • Wei Sha
  • Guoxiang Xie
  • Yunping Qiu
  • Wei Jia
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s11130-012-0286-0

Cite this article as:
Jin, F., Nieman, D.C., Sha, W. et al. Plant Foods Hum Nutr (2012) 67: 105. doi:10.1007/s11130-012-0286-0


Ten postmenopausal women (age 55.6 ± 0.8 years, BMI 24.6 ± 1.1 kg/m2) ingested 25 g/day milled chia seed during a 7-week period, with six plasma samples collected for measurement of α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Subjects operated as their own controls with overnight fasted blood samples taken at baseline (average of two samples), and then after 1, 2, 3, 5, and 7 weeks supplementation. Plasma ALA increased significantly after one week supplementation and was 138 % above baseline levels by the end of the study (overall time effect, P < 0.001). EPA increased 30 % above baseline (overall time effect, P = 0.019) and was correlated across time with ALA (r = 0.84, P = 0.02). No significant change in plasma DPA levels was measured (overall time effect, P = 0.067). Plasma DHA decreased slightly by the end of the study (overall time effect, P = 0.030) and was not correlated with change in ALA. In conclusion, ingestion of 25 g/day milled chia seeds for seven weeks by postmenopausal women resulted in significant increases in plasma ALA and EPA but not DPA and DHA.


Fatty acidsChia seedWomenPostmenopausal



α-linolenic acid


Analysis of variance


Association of Official Agricultural Chemists


Body mass index


Docosahexaenoic acid


Docosapentaenoic acid


Eicosapentaenoic acid


Gas chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry


High performance liquid chromatography time of flight mass spectrometry


Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry


n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fuxia Jin
    • 1
  • David C. Nieman
    • 1
  • Wei Sha
    • 2
  • Guoxiang Xie
    • 3
  • Yunping Qiu
    • 3
  • Wei Jia
    • 3
  1. 1.Human Performance Lab, North Carolina Research Campus, Plants for Human Health InstituteAppalachian State UniversityKannapolisUSA
  2. 2.Bioinformatics Services Division, North Carolina Research CampusUniversity of North Carolina at CharlotteKannapolisUSA
  3. 3.Department of Nutrition, Center for Research Excellence in Bioactive Food ComponentsUniversity of North Carolina at GreensboroKannapolisUSA