Harborne JB, Turner BL (1984) Plant Chemosystematics. London: Academic Press.
Clifford AH, Cuppett SL (2000) Review : Anthocyanins—nature, occurrence and dietary burden. J Sci Food Agric 80: 1063–1072.
Cook NC, Samman S (1996) Review : Flavonoids—chemistry, metabolism, cardioprotective effects, and dietary sources. J Nutr Biochem 7: 66–76.
Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Bolwell PG, Broamley PM, Pridham JB (1995) The relative antioxidant activities of plant-derived polyphenolic flavonoids. Free Rad Res 22: 375–383.
Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G (1996) Structure –antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids: Review article. Free Rad Biol Med 20: 933–956.
Hall CA, Cuppett SL (1997) Structure –activities of natural antioxidants. In: Aruoma, OI (ed), Antioxidant Methodology. Champaign, IL: AOCS Press, pp 141–172.
Gardner PT, McPhail DB, Duthie GG (1998) Electron spin resonance spectroscopic assessment in the antioxidant potential of teas in aqueous and organic media. J Sci Food Agric 76: 257–262.
Rice-Evans CA, Miller NJ, Paganga G (1997) Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds. Trends Plant Sci 2: 152–159.
Wollenweber E, Dietz VH (1981). Occurrence and distribution of free flavonoid aglycones in plants. Phytochemistry 20: 869–932.
Havsteen B (1983) Flavonoids, a class of natural products of high pharmacological potency. Biochem Pharm 32: 1141–1148.
Harborne JB (1988) The Flavonoids: Advances in Research since 1980. London: Chapman and Hall.
Berhow MA (1998) Flavonoid accumulation in tissue and cell culture. Adv Exp Med Biol 439: 67–84.
Nijveldt RJ, van Nood E, van Hoorn DEC, Boelens PG, van Norren K, van Leeuwen PAM (2001) Flavonoids : A review of probable mechanisms of action and potential applications. Am J Clin Nutr 74: 418–425.
Bravo L (1988) Polyphenols : Chemistry, dietary sources, metabolism, and nutritional significance. Nutr Rev 56: 317–333.
Aherne AS, Obrien NM (2002) Dietary flavonols: Chemistry, food content and metabolism. Nutrition 18: 75–81.
Peterson J, Dwyer J (1998) Flavonoids : Dietary occurrence and biochemical activity. Nutr Res 18: 1995–2018.
Huang MT, Osawa T, Ho CT, Rosen RT (1994) Food Phytochemicals for Cancer Prevention. I. Fruits and Vegetables. Austin, TX: American Chemical Society.
Ho CT, Osawa T, Huang MT, Rosen RT (1994) Food Phytochemicals for Cancer Prevention. II. Teas, Spices, and Herbs. Austin, TX: American Chemical Society.
Ho CT, Lee CY, Huang MT (1992) Phenolic Compounds in Food and Their Effects on Health I. Analysis, Occurrence & Chemistry. Austin, TX: American Chemical Society.
Benavente-Garcia O, Castillo J, Marin, FR, Ortuno A, Del-Rio JA (1997) Uses and properties of citrus flavonoids. J Agric Food Chem 45: 4505–4015.
Saleh MM, Hashem FAEM, Glombitza KW (1998) Study of Citrus taitensis and radical scavenger activity of the flavonoids isolated. Food Chem 63: 397–400.
Etievant P, Schlich P, Bertrand A, Symonds P, Bouvier JC (1988) Varietal and geographic classification of French red wines in terms of pigments and flavonoid compounds. J Sci Food Agric 42: 39–54.
Zand RSR, Jenkins DJA, Diamandis, EP (2002) Flavonoids and steroid hormone-dependent cancers. J Chromatogr B, 777: 219–232.
Duthie GG, Duthie SJ, Kyle JAM (2000) Plant polyphenols in cancer and heart disease: Implications as nutritional antioxidants. Nutr Res Rev 13: 79–106.
Chu YH, Chang CL, Hsu HF (2000) Flavonoid content of several vegetables and their antioxidant activity. J Sci Food Agric 80: 561–566.
Arts ICW, Van de Putte B, Hollman PCH (2000) Catechin contents of foods commonly consumed in the Netherlands. 1. Fruits, vegetables, staple foods, and processed foods. J Agric Food Chem 48:1746–1751.
Hertog MGL, Hollman PCH, Katan MB (1992) Content of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids of 28 vegetables and 9 fruits commonly consumed in the Netherlands. J Agric Food Chem 40: 2379–2383.
Hertog MGL, Hollman PCH, Van de Putte B (1993) Content of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids of tea infusions, wines and fruit juices. J Agric Food Chem 41: 1242–1246.
Arts ICW, Van de Putte B, Hollman PCH (2000) Catechin contents of foods commonly consumed in the Netherlands. 2. Tea, wine, fruit juices, and chocolate milk. J Agric Food Chem 48:1752–1757.
Singleton VL, Noble AC (1976) Wine flavour and phenolic substances. In: Charalambous G, Katz I (eds), Phenolic, Sulfur, and Nitrogen Compounds in Food Flavors. Chicago: American Chemical Society, pp 47–70.
Garcia-Viguera C, Bakker J, Bellworthy SJ, Reader HP, Watkins SJ, Bridle P (1997) The effect of some processing variables on non-coloured phenolic compounds in port wines. Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 205: 321–324.
Gil-Izquierdo A, Gil MI, Ferreres F, Tomás-Barberán FA (2001) In vitro availability of flavonoids and other phenolics in orange juice. J Agric Food Chem 49: 1035–1041.
Tomás-Barberán FA, Clifford MN (2000) Review : Flavanones, chalcones and dihydrochalcones—nature, occurrence and dietary burden. J Sci Food Agric 80: 1073–1080.
Hertog MG, Hollman PCH, Katan MB (1993) Intake of potentially anticarcinogenic flavonoids and their determinants in adults in the Netherlands. Nutr. Cancer 20: 21–29.
Hollman PCH, de Vries JHM, van Leeuwen SDD, Mengelers MJB, Katan MB (1995) Absorption of dietary quercetin in healthy ileostomy volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 62: 1276–1282.
Lee M-J, Wang ZY, Li H (1995) Analysis of plasma and urinary tea polyphenols in human subjects. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev 4: 393–399.
Hollman PCH, van Trijp JMP, Buysman MNCP, Gaag MS, Mengelers MJB, de Vries JHM, Katan MB (1997) Relative bioavailability of the antibioxidant flavonoid quercetin from various foods in Man. Febs Lett 418: 152–156.
Ren W, Qian Z, Wang H, Zhu L, Zhang L (2003) Flavonoids : Promising anticancer agents. Medicinal Res Rev 23(4): 519–534.
Cassidy A, Hanley B, Lamuela-Raventos RM (2000) Review : Isoflavones, lignans and stilbenes—origins, metabolism and potential importance to human health. J Sci Food Agric 80: 1044–1062.
Lyons-Wall PM, Samman S (1997) Flavonoids —dietary perspectives and health benefits. Nutr Soc Aust 21: 106–114.
Kuhnau J (1976) The flavonoids: A class of semi-essential food components: Their role in human nutrition. Wld Rev Nutri Diet 24: 117–120.
Chow K, Kramer I (1990) All the Tea in China. San Francisco: China Books and Period, Inc.
Hara Y (1992) Effects of tea polyphenols on cardiovascular diseases. Prev Med 21: 333.
Nakagawa K, Ninomiya M, Okubo T, Aoi N, Juneja LR, Kim M, Yamanaka K, Miyazawa T (1999) Tea catechin supplementation increases antioxidant capacity and prevents phospholipid hydroperoxidation in plasma of humans. J Agric Food Chem 47: 3967–3973.
Van Hof KH, Kivits GAA, Weststrate JA, Tijburg LBM (1998) Bioavailability of catechins from tea: The effect of milk. Eur J Clin Nutr 52: 356–359.
Birt DF, Shull JD, Yaktine A (1999) Chemoprevention of cancer. In: Shils ME, Olson JE, Shike M, Ross, AC (eds), Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.
Klahorst S (2002) Exploring antioxidants. Wd Food Ingred (April/May): 54–59.
Fukumoto LR, Mazza G (2000) Assessing antioxidant and prooxidant activities of phenolic compounds. J Agric Food Chem 48: 3597–3604.
Unno T, Sugimoto A, Kakuda T (2000) Scavenging effect of tea catechins and their epimers on superoxide anion radicals generated by a hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase system. J Sci Food Agric 80: 601–606.
Duthie SJ, Dobson VL (1999) Dietary flavonoids protect human colonocyte DNA from oxidative attack in vitro. Eur.J Nutr 38: 28–34.
Birt DF, Hendrich S, Wang W (2001) Dietary agents in cancer prevention: Flavonoids and isoflavonoids. Pharmacol Therapeut 90: 157–177.
Bors W, Heller W, Michel C, Stettmaier K (1996) Flavonoids and polyphenols: Chemistry and biology. In: Cadenas E, Packer L (eds), Handbook of Antioxidants. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc., pp 409–468.
Frankel S, Robinson GE, Berenbaum MR (1998) Antioxidant capacity and correlated characteristics of 14 unifloral honeys. J Apic Res 37: 27–31.
Matsuo N, Yamada K, Shoji K, Mori M, Sugano M (1997) Effect of tea polyphenols on histamine release from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells: The structure–inhibitory activity relationship. Allergy 52: 58–64.
Salah N, Miller NJ, Paganga G, Tijburg L, Bolwell GP, Rice-Evans CA (1995) Polyphenolic flavonols as scavengers of aqueous phase radicals and as chain-breaking antioxidants. Arch Biochem Biophys 322: 339–346.
Pannala AS, Chan TS, O’Brien PJ, Rice-Evans CA (2001) Flavonoid B-ring chemistry and antioxidant activity: Fast reaction kinetics. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 282: 1161–1168.
Day AJ, DuPont MS, Ridley S, Rhodes M, Rhodes MJC, Morgan MRA, Williamson G (1998) Deglycosylation of flavonoid and isoflavonoid glycosides by human small intestine and liver B-glucosidase activity. Febs Lett 436: 71–75.
Benzie IFF, Szeto YT, Strain JJ, Tomlinson B (1999) Consumption of green tea causes rapid increase in plasma antioxidant power in humans. Nutr Cancer 34: 83–87.
Feng Q, Torii Y, Uchida K, Nakamura Y, Hara Y, Osawa T (2002) Black tea polyphenols, theaflavins, prevent cellular DNA damage by inhibiting oxidative stress and suppressing cytochrome P450 1A1 in cell cultures. J Agric Food Chem 50: 213–220.
Rosa GM, Mei R, Di Carlo G, Pacilio M, Di Carlo R (2001) Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 expression by flavonoids in macrophage J774A. 1. Life Sci 68: 921–931.
Mutoh M, Takashi M, Fukuda K, Komatsu H, Enya T, Masushima-Hibiya Y, Mutoh H, Sugimura T, Wakabayashi K (2000) Suppression by flavonoids of cyclooxygenase-2 promoter-dependent transcriptional activity in colon cancer cells: Structure–activity relationship. Jpn J Cancer Res 91: 686–691.
Middleton E, Kandaswami C (1992) Effects of flavonoids on immune and inflammatory cell functions. Biochem Pharmacol 43: 1167–1179.
Sano M, Suzuki M, Miyase T, Yoshino K, Maeda-Yamamoto M (1999) Novel antiallergic catechin derivatives isolated from oolong tea. J Agric Food Chem 47: 1906–1910.
Gaby AR (1998) Quercetin : A potentially useful, potentially harmful flavonoid. Townsend Lett Drs Pat 178: 102.
Li BQ, Fu T, Yan YD, Mikovits JA, Ruscetti FW, Wang JM (2000) Flavonoid baicalin inhibits HIV-1 infection at the level of viral entry. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 276: 534–538.
Muldoon MF, Kritchevsky SB (1996) Flavonoids and heart disease. Br Med J 312: 458–459.
Chen C, Tang HR, Sutcliffe LH, Belton PS (2000) Green tea polyphenols react with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radicals in the bilayer of liposomes: Direct evidence from electron spin resonance studies. J Agric Food Chem 48: 5710–5714.
Knekt P, Reunanen A, Jarvinen R, Maatela J (1996) Flavonoids intake and coronary mortality in Finland: A cohort study. Br Med J 312: 478–481.
Yochum LA, Kushi LH, Meyer K, Folsom AR (2000) Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 149: 943–949.
Yochum LA, Folsom AR, Kushi LH (2000) Re : dietary flavonoid intake and risk of cardovascular disease in postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 151: 634–635.
Hertog MGL, Feskens EJM, Hollman PCH, Katan MB, Kromhout D (1993) Dietary antioxidant flavonoids and risk of coronary heart disease: The Zutphen elderly study. Lancet 342: 1007–1011.
Hertog MGL, Kromhout D, Aravanis C, Blackburn H, Buzina R, Fidanza F, Giampaoli S, Jansen A, Menotti A, Nedeljkovic S, Pekkarinen M, Simic BS, Toshima H, Feskens EJM, Hollman PCH, Katan MB (1995) Flavonoids intake and long-term risk of coronary heart disease and cancer in seven countries study. Arch Intern Med 155: 381–386.
Keli SO, Hertog MGL, Feskens EJM, Kromhout D (1996) Dietary flavonoids, antioxidant vitamins, and incidence of stroke. Arch Int Med 156: 637–642.
Weisburger JH (1996) Tea antioxidants and health. In: Cadenas E, Packer L (eds), Handbook of antioxidants. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc., pp 469–486.
Tijburg LBM, Mattern T, Folts JD, Weisgerber UM, Katan MB (1997) Tea flavonoids and cardiovascular diseases: A review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 37: 771–785.
Lou FQ, Zhang MF, Zhang XG, Liu JM, Yuan WL (1992) A study on tea pigment in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Prev Med 21: 333.
Paquay JBG, Haenen GRMM, Stender G, Wiseman SA, Tijburg LBM, Bast A (2000) Protection against nitric oxide toxicity by tea. J Agric Food Chem 48: 5768–5772.
Finotti E, Di Majo D (2003) Influence of solvents on the antioxidant property of flavonoids. Nahrung/Food 47(3); 186–187.
Naderi GA, Asgary S, Sarraf-Zadegan N, Shirvany H (2003) Anti -oxidant effect of flavonoids on the susceptibility of LDL oxidation. Mol Cell Biochem 246: 193–196.
Kuo SM (1997) Dietary flavonoids and cancer prevention: Evidence and potential mechanism. Crit Rev Oncogen 8: 47–69.
Sawa T, Nakao M, Akaike T, Ono K, Maeda H (1999) Alkylperoxyl radical-scavenging activity of various flavonoids and other phenolic compounds: Implications for the anti-tumor-promoter effect of vegetables. J Agric Food Chem 47: 397–402.
Siess MH, Le Bon AM, Canivenec-Lavier MC, Amoit MJ, Sabatier S, Aubert SY, Suschetet M (1996) Flavonoid of honey and propolis: Characterisation and effects on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes and benzo[a]pyrene-DNA binding in rats. J Agric Food Chem 40: 2297–2301.
Dragsted LO, Strube M, Leth T (1997) Dietary levels of plant phenols and other non-nutritive components: Could they prevent cancer? Eur J Cancer Prev 6: 522–528.
Oguni I, Cheng SJ, Lin PZ, Hara Y (1992) Protection against cancer risk by Japanese green tea. Prev Med 21: 332.
Osawa T, Kumon H, Nakayama T, Kawakishi S, Hara Y (1992) Tea polyphenols as antioxidants. Prev Med 21: 332.
Balentine DA (1997) Introduction : Tea and health. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 37: 691–692.
Wiseman S, Balentine DA, Frei B (1997) Antioxidants in Tea. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 37: 705–718.
Chen CW, Ho CT (1995) Antioxidant properties of polyphenols extracted from green tea and black teas. J Food Lip 2: 35–46.
Gensler HL, Timmermann BN, Valcic S, Wachter GA, Dorr R, Dvorakova K, Alberts DS (1996) Prevention of photocarcinogenesis by topical administration of pure epigallocatechin gallate isolated from green tea. Nutr Cancer 26: 325–335.
Conney AH, Wang ZY, Huang MT, Ho CT, Yang CS (1992) Inhibitory effect of green tea on tumorigenesis by chemicals and ultraviolet light. Prev Med 21: 361–369.
Katiyar SK, Agarwal R, Mukhtar H (1992) Green tea in chemoprevention of cancer. Comprehens Ther 18: 3–8.
Katiyar SK, Agarwal R, Wang ZY, Bhatia AK, Mukhtar H (1992) Epigallocatechin -3-gallate in Camellia sinensis leaves from Himalayan region of Sikkim: Inhibitory effects against biochemical events and tumor initiation in Sencar mouse skin. Nutr Cancer 18: 73–83.
Khan SG, Katiyar SK, Agarwal R, Mukhtar H (1992) Enhancement of antioxidant and phase II enzymes by oral feeding of green tea polyphenols in drinking water to SKH-1 hairless mice: Possible role in cancer chemoprevention. Cancer Res 52: 4050–4052.
Wang ZY, Huang MT, Ho CT, Chang R, Ma W, Ferraro T (1992) Inhibitory effect of green tea on growth of established skin papillomas in mice. Cancer Rev 52: 6657–6665.
Yang CS, Wang ZY (1993) Tea and cancer. J Natal Cancer Inst 85: 1038–1049.
Mukhtar H, Katiyar SK, Agarwal R (1994) Green tea and skin—anticarcinogenic effects. J Invest Dermatol 102: 3–7.
Dreosti IE, Wargovich MJ, Yang CS (1997) Inhibition of carcinogenesis by tea: The evidence from the experimental studies. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 37: 761–770.
Kivits GAA, Van der Sman FJP, Tijburg LMB (1997) Analysis of catechins from green and black tea in human: A specific and sensitive colorimetric assay of total catechins in biological fluids. Int J Food Sci Nutr 48: 387–392.
Landau JM, Yang CS (1997) The effect of tea on health. Chem Ind 22: 904–906.
Ahmad N, Feyes DK, Nieminen AL, Agarwal R, Mukhtar H (1997) Green tea constituent epigallocatechin-3-gallate and induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human carcinoma cells. J Natl Cancer Inst 89: 1881–1886.
Nakamura Y, Harada S, Kawase I, Matsuda M, Tomita I (1992) Inhibition of in vitro neoplastic transformation by tea ingredients. Prev Med 21: 332.
Cheng SJ, Ho CT (1988) Mutagens, carcinogens, and inhibitors in Chinese foods. Food Rev Int 4: 353–374.
Weisburger JH (1992) On the role of tea in modifying causes of major human cancers. Prev Med 21: 331.
Xu Y, Ho CT, Amin SG, Han C, Chung FL (1992) Inhibition of tobacco-specific nitrosamine-induced lung tumorigenesis in A/J mice by green tea and major polyphenol as antioxidants. Cancer Rev 52: 3875–3879.
Xu Y, Ho CT, Dhimant D, Chung FL (1992) Effects of green tea and its components on lung tumorigenesis induced by a tobacco-specific nitrosamine (NNK). Prev Med 21: 332.
Chen JS (1992) The effects of Chinese tea on the occurrence of esophageal tumors induced by N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine in rats. Prev Med 21: 385–391.
Chen YC, Liang YC, Lin-Shiau SY, Ho CT, Lin JK (1999) Inhibition of TPA-induced protein kinase C and transcription activator protein-1 binding activities by theaflavin-3,3’-digallate from black tea in NIH3T3 cells. J Agric Food Chem 47: 1416–1421.
Pan MH, Liang YC, Lin-Shiau SY, Zhu NQ, Ho CT, Lin JK (2000) Induction of apoptosis by the oolong tea polyphenol theasinensin a through cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in human U937 cells. J Agric Food Chem 48: 6337–6346.