Public Choice

, Volume 157, Issue 1, pp 91–113

White supremacist groups and hate crime


DOI: 10.1007/s11127-012-0045-7

Cite this article as:
Mulholland, S.E. Public Choice (2013) 157: 91. doi:10.1007/s11127-012-0045-7


Hate group activity may incite criminal behavior or serve as protection from bias-based violence. I find that the presence of one or more active white supremacist chapters is associated with higher hate crime rates. I reject the hypothesis that chapter presence and hate crimes are symptomatic of the overall level of bias-based violence. Moreover, I reject the hypothesis that white supremacist groups form in response to an increase in antiwhite hate crimes, particularly those perpetrated by nonwhites.


Hate groupsWhite supremacistHate crimeCollective actionProtection

JEL Classification


Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Stonehill CollegeEastonUSA