State transitions at the crossroad of thylakoid signalling pathways
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- Lemeille, S. & Rochaix, J. Photosynth Res (2010) 106: 33. doi:10.1007/s11120-010-9538-8
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In order to maintain optimal photosynthetic activity under a changing light environment, plants and algae need to balance the absorbed light excitation energy between photosystem I and photosystem II through processes called state transitions. Variable light conditions lead to changes in the redox state of the plastoquinone pool which are sensed by a protein kinase closely associated with the cytochrome b6f complex. Preferential excitation of photosystem II leads to the activation of the kinase which phosphorylates the light-harvesting system (LHCII), a process which is subsequently followed by the release of LHCII from photosystem II and its migration to photosystem I. The process is reversible as dephosphorylation of LHCII on preferential excitation of photosystem I is followed by the return of LHCII to photosystem II. State transitions involve a considerable remodelling of the thylakoid membranes, and in the case of Chlamydomonas, they allow the cells to switch between linear and cyclic electron flow. In this alga, a major function of state transitions is to adjust the ATP level to cellular demands. Recent studies have identified the thylakoid protein kinase Stt7/STN7 as a key component of the signalling pathways of state transitions and long-term acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus. In this article, we present a review on recent developments in the area of state transitions.