Public Organization Review

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 277-298

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Developing Capacities for Inclusive Citizenship in Multicultural Societies: The Role of Deliberative Theory and Citizenship Education

  • Puja KapaiAffiliated withCenter for Public Law Faculty, The University of Hong Kong Email author 


Political frameworks such as assimilation, accommodation and multiculturalism that have sought to address difference have failed to achieve political equality and inclusion for immigrants, driven primarily by the flawed understanding of culture and identity in multicultural states. Offering a brief critique of these models, this essay advocates the use of deliberative theory in citizenship education as instrumental to building capacities for inclusive citizenship and cultivating belonging and inclusion in diverse societies. Deliberative practice enables the reconceptualization of citizenship as performative, involving responsibilities for dialogic engagement. Such capacities and responsibilities are indispensable for a just political order in multicultural societies.


Governance Citizenship Identity Nation-states