Work disability and migration in the early years of welfare reform
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The inter- and intra-state migration of American families with work-disabled members is a neglected area of empirical study. Longitudinal migration and health status data from the 1996 Panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) are merged with state-level welfare policy indicators to investigate migration behavior under welfare reform’s emphasis on requiring work and encouraging reliance on social support networks. We use a nested discrete-choice event history model that incorporates the departure decision and interstate destination choice in a single model that tests the effects of state-level welfare policy and economic opportunity characteristics, with state fixed effects, plus family sociodemographic characteristics and social networks, as the basis for comparing migration of families with and without work disabilities. The results show that although families with disabilities and illnesses are less likely to migrate than other families generally, they are “pushed” to migrate if they live in states that do not exempt them from TANF activities requirements. Furthermore, in-migration is inhibited by stringent state welfare illness exemption rules and high state unemployment rates. Intrastate migration is more likely among families who received family and community social support, regardless of work-disability status.
- Allison, P. D. (1995). Survival analysis using the SAS system, a practical guide. Cary NC: SAS Institute Inc.
- Angel, J. L., De Jong, G. F., Cornwell, G. T., & Wilmoth, J. (1995). Diminished health, non-metropolitan residence, and premature institutionalization: Evidence from the longitudinal study of aging. National Journal of Sociology, 9, 31–57.
- Borg, V., & Kristensen, T. S. (2000). Social class and self-rated health: Can the gradient be explained by differences in life style or work environment? Social Science and Medicine, 51, 1019–1030. CrossRef
- De Jong, G. F. (1999). Choice processes in migration behavior. In K. Pandit, & S. D. Withers (Eds.), Migration and restructuring in the United States (pp. 273–293). New York: Rowman and Littlefield.
- De Jong, G. F., Graefe, D. R., & St. Pierre, T. (2005). Welfare reform and interstate migration of poor families. Demography, 42, 469–496. CrossRef
- De Jong, G. F., Graefe, D. R., Irving, S. K., & St. Pierre, T. (2006). Measuring state TANF policy variations and change after reform. Social Science Quarterly, 87, 755–781. CrossRef
- De Jong, G. F., Wilmoth, J., Angel, J. L., & Cornwell, G. T. (1995). Motives and the geographic mobility of very old Americans. Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, 50B, S395–S404.
- Edin, K., & Lein, L. (1997). Work, welfare, and single mothers’ economic survival strategies. American Sociological Review, 62, 253–266. CrossRef
- Ell, K. (1996). Social networks, social support and coping with serious illness: The family connection. Social Science and Medicine, 42, 173–183. CrossRef
- Evers, A. W. M., Kraaimaat, F. W., Geenen, R., Jacobs, J. W. G., & Johannes, W. J. B. (2003). Pain coping and social support as predictors of long-term functional disability and pain in early rheumatoid arthritis. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41, 1295–1310. CrossRef
- Frey, W., Liaw, K.-L., Xie, Y., & Carlson, M. (1996). Interstate migration of the U. S. poverty population: Immigration “pushes” and welfare magnet “pulls.” Population and Environment: A Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, 17, 491–533.
- Hayward, M. D., Crimmins, E. M., Miles, T. P., & Yang, Y. (2000). The significance of socioeconomic status in explaining the racial gap in chronic health conditions. American Sociological Review, 65, 910–930. CrossRef
- Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation (2003). Welfare, women, and health: The role of temporary assistance for needy families. Issue Brief, An Update on Women’s Health Policy (April).
- House, J. S., Lepkowski, J. M., Kinney, A. M., Mero, R. P., Kessler, R. C., & Herzog, A. R. (1994) The social stratification of aging and health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 35, 213–234. CrossRef
- Kuh, D., & Ben-Schlomo, Y. (Eds.) (1997). A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
- Kwakkel, G., Wagenaar, R. C., Kollen, B. J., & Lankhorst, G. J. (1996). Predicting disability in stroke—a critical review of the literature. Age and Aging, 25, 479–489.
- Lantz, P. M., Lynch, J. W., House, J. H., Lepowski, J. M., Mero, R. P., Musick, M. A., & Williams, D. R. (2001). Socioeconomic disparities in health change in a longitudinal study of U. S. adults: The role of health-risk behaviors. Social Science & Medicine, 53, 29–40. CrossRef
- Link, B. G., & Phelan, J. (1995). Social conditions as fundamental causes of disease. Journal of Health and Social Behavior Extra Issue, 80–94.
- Litwak, E., & Longino, C. F. Jr. (1987). Migration patterns among the elderly: A developmental perspective. The Gerontologist, 27, 266–272.
- McFadden, D. (1974). Conditional logit analysis of qualitative choice behaviour. In: P. Zarembka (Ed.), Frontiers in econometrics (pp. 105–142). New York: Academic Press.
- MacKenzie, E. J., Morris, J. A. Jr., Jurkovich, G. J., Yasui, Y., Cushing, B. M., Burgess, A. R., DeLateur, B. J., Andrew, M. P., & Swiontkowski, M. F. (1998). Return to work following injury: The role of economic, social, and job-related factors. American Journal of Public Health, 88, 1630–1637. CrossRef
- Marmot, M. G., Smith, G. D., Stansfeld, S., Patel, C., North, F., Head, J., White, I., Brunner, E., & Feeney, A. (1991). Health inequalities among British civil servants: The Whitehall II Study. The Lancet, 337, 7. CrossRef
- Massey, D. S., Arango, J., Hugo, G., Kouaouci, A., & Pellegrino, A. (1998). Worlds in motion: Understanding international migration at the end of the millennium. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Meyer, J. W., & Speare, A. Jr. (1985). Distinctive elderly mobility: Types and determinants. Economic Geography, 61, 79–88. CrossRef
- Miller, M. E., Longino, C. F. Jr., Anderson, R. T., James, M. K., & Woley, A. S. (1999). Functional status, assistance, and the risk of a community-based move. The Gerontologist, 39, 187–200. CrossRef
- Moffitt, R., & Cherlin, A. (2002). Disadvantage among families remaining on welfare. Joint Center for Poverty Research Policy Brief, 3(12).
- Moore, D. E., & Hayward, M. D. (1990). Occupational careers and mortality of elderly men. Demography, 27, 31–53.
- Parrott, S., Primus, W., & Fremstad, S. (2002). Administration’s TANF proposal would limit—not increase—state flexibility. Washington DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities (April).
- Polit, D. F., London, A. S., & Martinez, J. M. (2001). The health of poor urban women: Findings from the Project on Devolution and Urban Change. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation [MDRC].
- Public Policy Institute of California [PPIC]. (2000). Disabled children in low-income families: Private costs and public consequences. Research Brief (October).
- Rahimian, A., Wolch, J. R., & Koegel, P. (1992). A model of homeless migration—homeless men in skid-row, Los Angeles. Environment and Planning, 24, 1317–1336. CrossRef
- Ross, C. E., & Wu, C. (1995). The links between education and health. American Sociological Review, 60, 719–745. CrossRef
- Ross, C. E., & Mirowsky, J. (1999). Refining the association between education and health: The effects of quantity, credential, and selectivity. Demography, 36, 445–460.
- SAS Institute, Inc. (n.d.). Chapter 15, The MDC procedure. Documentation for the 8.2 Release of the MDC procedure (pdf). Available at: http://support.sas.com/rnd/app/papers/mdc.pdf (last accessed 8/28/06).
- Schachter, J. P. (2004). Geographic mobility: 2002–2003. Washington DC: U. S. Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, P20–549.
- Schram, S., Nitz, L., & Krueger, G. (1998). Without cause or effect: Reconsidering welfare migration as a policy problem. American Journal of Political Science, 42, 210–230.
- Schram, S., & Soss, J. (1999). The real value of welfare: Why poor families do not migrate. Politics and Society, 27, 39–66.
- Silverstein, M., & Zabolotsky, D. L. (1996). Health and social precursors of later life retirement—community migration. Journal of Gerontoloty: Social Science, 51B, 150–S156.
- Speare, A. Jr., Avery, R., & Lawton, L. (1991). Disability, residential mobility, and changes in living arrangements. Journal of Gerontology: Social Science, 46, S133–S142.
- U.S. General Accounting Office [GAO] (2001a). Welfare reform: More coordinated federal effort could help states and localities move TANF recipients with impairments toward employment. GAO-02-37, October. Washington DC: U. S. General Accounting Office.
- U.S. General Accounting Office [GAO] (2001b). Welfare reform: Outcomes for TANF recipients with impairments. GAO-02-884, July. Washington DC: U.S. General Accounting Office.
- Wiseman, R. F. (1980). Why older people move—theoretical issues. Research on Aging, 2, 141–154.
- Work disability and migration in the early years of welfare reform
Population Research and Policy Review
Volume 25, Issue 4 , pp 353-368
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers
- Additional Links
- Work disability
- TANF illness exemptions
- Social support
- Industry Sectors