Ansolabehere, S., & Iyengar, S. (1995). Going negative: How attack ads shrink and polarize the electorate. New York: Free Press.
Bartels, L. M. (2005). Homer gets a tax cut: Inequality and public policy in the American mind. Perspectives on Politics,
Bartels, L. M. (2008). Unequal democracy: The political economy of the new gilded age. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Campbell, A. L. (2003). How policies make citizens: Senor political activism and the American welfare state. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Campbell, D. E. (2006). Religious “threat” in contemporary presidential elections. Journal of Politics,
Campbell, A., Converse, P. E., Miller, W. E., & Stokes, D. E. (1960). The American voter. New York: Wiley.
Carmines, E. G., & Stimson, J. A. (1989). Issue evolution: Race and the transformation of American politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Citrin, J., & Green, D. P. (1990). The self-interest motive in American public opinion. Research in Micropolitics,
Claibourn, M. P. (2008). Making a connection: Repetition in campaigns and the development of candidate-issue connections. Journal of Politics,
Clinton, J. D., & Lapinski, J. S. (2004). “Targeted” advertising and voter turnout: An experimental study of the 2000 presidential election. The Journal of Politics,
Eckstein, H. (1975). Case study and theory in political science. In F. Greenstein & N. Polsby (Eds.), Handbook of political science (pp. 79–137). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Edelman, M. J. (1964). The symbolic uses of politics. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Frymer, P. (1999). Uneasy alliances: Race and party competition in America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Gaventa, J. (1980). Power and powerlessness: Quiescence and rebellion in an Appalachian valley. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
George, A. L., & Bennett, A. (2005). Case studies and theory development in the social sciences. London: The MIT Press.
Goldstein, K., Franz, M., & Ridout, T. (2002). Political advertising in 2000. The Department of Political Science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the Brennan Center for Justice at New York University.
Goldstein, K., & Freedman, P. (2002a). Campaign advertising and voter turnout: New evidence for a stimulation effect. Journal of Politics,
Goldstein, K., & Freedman, P. (2002b). Lessons learned: Campaign advertising in the 2000 elections. Political Communication,
Griffin, J. D., & Newman, B. (2005). Are voters better represented? The Journal of Politics,
Hochschild, J., & Scott, B. (1998). Trends: Governance and reform of public education in the United States. The Public Opinion Quarterly,
Huckfeldt, R. R., & Sprague, J. D. (1992). Political parties and electoral mobilization: Political structure, social structure, and the party canvass. American Political Science Review,
Huckfeldt, R. R., & Sprague, J. D. (1995). Citizens, politics, and social communication: Information and influence in an election campaign
. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRef
Kinder, D. R., & Roderick Kiewiet, D. (1981). Sociotropic politics: The American case. British Journal of Political Science,
King, G., Tomz, M., & Wittenberg, J. (2000). Making the most of statistical analyses: Improving interpretation and presentation. American Journal of Political Science,
Krugman, P. (2000, September 10). Reckonings: Gore’s tax problem. The New York Times.
Leege, D. C., Mueller, P. D., Wald, K. D., & Krueger, B. S. (2002). The politics of cultural differences. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Martin, P. S. (2003). Voting’s rewards: Voter turnout, attentive publics, and congressional allocation of federal monies. American Journal of Political Science,
Meier, K. J. (1994). The politics of sin: Drugs, alcohol, and public policy. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe Inc.
Mendelberg, T. (1997). Executing Hortons: Racial crime in the 1988 presidential campaign. The Public Opinion Quarterly,
Mendelberg, T. (2001). The race card: Campaign strategy, implicit messages, and the norm of equality. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Mettler, S. (2002). Bringing the state back into civic engagement: Policy feedback effects of the G.I. Bill for World War II veterans. The American Political Science Review,
Mettler, S., & Soss, J. (2004). The consequences of public policy for democratic citizenship: Bridging policy studies and mass politics. Perspectives on Politics,
Mettler, S., & Stonecash, J. (2008). Government program usage and political voice. Social Science Quarterly,
Morone, J. A. (2004). Hellfire nation: The politics of sin in American history. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Pierson, P. (1993). When effect becomes cause. World Politics,
Romer, D., Jamieson, K. H., Adasiewicz, C., Kensi, K., & Waldman, P. (2004). Capturing campaign dynamics: The national Annenberg election study. New York: Oxford University Press.
Rosenstone, S. J., & Hansen, J. M. (1993). Mobilization, participation, and democracy in America. New York: Macmillan.
Schattschneider, E. E. (1960). The semisovereign people: A realist’s view of democracy in America. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Schier, S. E. (2000). By invitation only: The rise of exclusive politics in the United States. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press.
Schneider, A., & Ingram, H. (1993). Social construction of target populations: Implications for politics and policy. The American Political Science Review,
Sears, D. O., & Citrin, J. (1982). Tax revolt: Something for nothing in California. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sears, D. O., & Funk, C. L. (1990). Self-interest and Americans’ public opinions. In J. J. Mansbridge (Ed.), Beyond self-interest (pp. 147–170). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Sears, D. O., Hensler, C. P., & Speer, L. K. (1979). Whites’ opposition to “busing”: Self-interest or symbolic politics? The American Political Science Review,
Sears, D. O., Lau, R. R., Tyler, T. R., & Allen, H. M., Jr. (1980). Self-interest vs. symbolic politics in policy attitudes and presidential voting. The American Political Science Review,
Sides, J., & Karch, A. (2008). Messages that mobilize? Issue publics and the content of campaign advertising. Journal of Politics,
Soss, J. (1999). Lessons of welfare: Policy design, political learning, and political action. The American Political Science Review,
Stoker, L. (1994). A reconsideration of self-interest in American public opinion. ANES Pilot Study Report, No. nes010876.
Tomz, M., Wittenberg, J., & King, G. (2001). CLARIFY: Software for interpreting and presenting statistical results, version 2.0
. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University, June 1. http://gking.harvard.edu
Unnever, J. D., Cullen, F. T., & Fisher, B. S. (2007). “A liberal is someone who has not been mugged”: Criminal victimization and political beliefs. Justice Quarterly,
Valentino, N. A. (1999). Crime news and the priming of racial attitudes during evaluations of the president. The Public Opinion Quarterly,
Valentino, N. A., Hutchings, V. L., & White, I. K. (2002). Cues that matter: How political ads prime racial attitudes during campaigns. The American Political Science Review,
Verba, S., Schlozman, K. L., & Brady, H. E. (1995). Voice and equality: Civic voluntarism in American politics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Weaver, V. M. (2007). Frontlash: Race and the development of punitive crime policy. Studies in American Political Development,
Wielhouwer, P. W., & Lockerbie, B. (1994). Party contacting and political participation, 1952–90. American Journal of Political Science,
Zaller, J. R. (2002). The statistical power of election studies to detect media exposure effects in political campaigns. Electoral Studies,