Political Behavior

, Volume 32, Issue 4, pp 587–618

Masculine Republicans and Feminine Democrats: Gender and Americans’ Explicit and Implicit Images of the Political Parties

Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s11109-010-9131-z

Cite this article as:
Winter, N.J.G. Polit Behav (2010) 32: 587. doi:10.1007/s11109-010-9131-z


During the past three decades Americans have come to view the parties increasingly in gendered terms of masculinity and femininity. Utilizing three decades of American National Election Studies data and the results of a cognitive reaction-time experiment, this paper demonstrates empirically that these connections between party images and gender stereotypes have been forged at the explicit level of the traits that Americans associate with each party, and also at the implicit level of unconscious cognitive connections between gender and party stereotypes. These connections between the parties and masculinity and femininity have important implications for citizens’ political cognition and for the study of American political behavior.


Public opinionParty imagesMasculinityFemininityGenderImplicit attitudes

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Woodrow Wilson Department of PoliticsUniversity of VirginiaCharlottesvilleUSA