Allport, G. W. (1954). The nature of prejudice. New York: Anchor Books.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Blumer, H. H. M., Jr. (1958). Race prejudice as a sense of group position. Pacific Sociological Review,
Bobo, L. (2000). Race and beliefs about affirmative action: Assessing the effects of interests, group threat, ideology and racism. In D. O. Sears, J. Sidanius, & L. Bobo (Eds.), Racialized politics: The debate about racism in America (pp. 137–164). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bollen, K. A., & Stine, R. (1990). Direct and indirect effects: Classical and bootstrap estimates of variability. Sociological Methodology,
Brader, T. (2006). Campaigning for hearts and minds: How emotional appeals in political ads work. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Branton, R. P., & Jones, B. S. (2005). Reexamining racial attitudes: The conditional relationship between diversity and socioeconomic environment. American Journal of Political Science,
Cacioppo, J. T., & Gardner, W. L. (1999). Emotion. Annual Review of Psychology,
Conover, P. J., & Feldman, S. (1986). Emotional reactions to the economy: I’m mad as hell and I’m not going to take it anymore. American Journal of Political Science,
Cottrell, C. A., & Neuberg, S. L. (2005). Different emotional reactions to different groups: A sociofunctional threat-based approach to ‘prejudice’. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Duckitt, J. (2003). Prejudice and intergroup hostility. In D. Sears, L. Huddy, & R. Jervis (Eds.), Oxford handbook of political psychology (pp. 559–600). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Feldman, S., & Huddy, L. (2005). Racial resentment and white opposition to race-conscious programs: Principles or prejudice? American Journal of Political Science,
Gray, J. A. (1987a). The neuropsychology of emotion and personality. In S. M. Stahl, S. D. Iversen, & E. C. Goodman (Eds.), Cognitive neurochemistry (pp. 171–190). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Gray, J. A. (1987b). The psychology of fear and stress (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gray, J. A. (1990). Brain systems that mediate both emotion and cognition. Cognition and Emotion,
Gray, J. A. (1991). Fear, panic, and anxiety: What’s in a name? Psychological Inquiry,
Gray, J. A., & McNaughton, N. (1996). The neuropsychology of anxiety: Reprise. In D. A. Hope (Ed.), Perspectives on anxiety, panic and fear (Vol. 43, pp. 61–134). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Gross, K. (2008). Framing persuasive appeals: Episodic and thematic framing, emotional response, and policy opinion. Political Psychology,
Henry, P. J., & Sears, D. O. (2002). The symbolic racism 2000 scale. Political Psychology,
Hutchings, V. L., & Valentino, N. A. (2004). The centrality of race in American politics. Annual Review of Political Science,
Just, M. R., Crigler, A. N., & Neuman, W. R. (1996). Cognitive and affective dimensions of political conceptualization. In A. N. Crigler (Ed.), The psychology of political communication. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Kellstedt, P. M. (2003). Mass media and the dynamic of American racial attitudes
. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRef
Kinder, D. R., & Sanders, L. M. (1996). Divided by color: Racial politics and democratic ideals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kinder, D. R., & Sears, D. O. (1981). Prejudice and politics: Symbolic racism versus racial threats to the good life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Kramer, R. M., & Jost, J. T. (2002). Close encounters of the suspicious kind: Outgroup paranoia in hierarchical trust dilemmas. In D. M. Mackie & E. R. Smith (Eds.), From prejudice to intergroup emotions: Differentiated reactions to social groups. New York: Psychology Press.
Kuklinski, J. H., Sniderman, P. M., Knight, K., Piazza, T., Tetlock, P. E., Lawrence, G. R., et al. (1997). Racial prejudice and attitudes toward affirmative action. American Journal of Political Science,
Ladd, J. M., & Lenz, G. S. (2008). Reassessing the role of anxiety in vote choice. Political Psychology, 29
Lau, R. R., & Redlawsk, D. P. (2001). Advantages and disadvantages of cognitive heuristics in political decision making. American Journal of Political Science,
Mackie, D. M., Devos, T., & Smith, E. R. (2000). Intergroup emotions: Explaining offensive action tendencies in an intergroup context. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,
Mackie, D. M., & Smith, E. R. (2002). Beyond prejudice: Moving from positive and negative evaluations to differentiated reactions to social groups. In D. M. Mackie & E. R. Smith (Eds.), From prejudice to intergroup emotions: Differentiated reactions to social groups. New York: Psychology Press.
Marcus, G. E., Sullivan, J. L., Theiss-Morse, E., & Wood, S. L. (1995). With Malice toward some: How people make civil liberties judgments. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Marcus, G. E., Sullivan, J. L., Thiess-Morse, E., & Stevens, D. (2005). The emotional foundation of political cognition: The impact of extrinsic anxiety on the formation of political tolerance judgments. Political Psychology,
Mendelberg, T. (2001). The race card. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University.
Nadeau, R., Niemi, R. G., & Amato, T. (1995). Emotions, issue importance, and political learning. American Journal of Political Science,
Neuberg, S. L., & Cottrell, C. A. (2002). Intergroup emotions: A biocultural approach. In D. M. Mackie & E. R. Smith (Eds.), From prejudice to intergroup emotions: Differentiated reactions to social groups. New York: Psychology Press.
Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers,
Quillian, L. (1995). Prejudice as a response to perceived group threat: Population composition and anti-immigrant and racial prejudice in Europe. American Sociological Review,
Redlawsk, D. P. (2002). Hot cognition or cool consideration? Testing the effects of motivated reasoning on political decision making. Journal of Politics,
Sears, D. O. (1988). Symbolic racism. In K. Phyllis & T. Dalmas (Eds.), Eliminating racism: Profiles in controversy (pp. 53–84). New York: Plenum Press.
Sears, D. O., Sidanius, J., & Bobo, L. (2000). Racialized politics: The debate about racism in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Small, D. A., & Lerner, J. S. (2008). Emotional policy: Personal sadness and anger shape judgments about a welfare case. Political Psychology,
Sniderman, P. M., Brody, R. A., & Tetlock, P. E. (1991). Reasoning and choice: Explorations in political psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence interval for indirect effects in structural equation models. In S. Leinhart (Ed.), Sociological methodology 1982. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Stenner, K. (2005). The authoritarian dynamic
. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRef
Stimson, J. A. (1999). Public opinion in America: Moods, cycles and swings (2nd ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview.
Tarman, C., & Sears, D. O. (2005). The conceptualization and measurement of symbolic racism. Journal of Politics,
Valentino, N. A., Hutchings, V. L., Banks, A. J., & Davis, A. K. (2008). Is a worried citizen a good citizen? Emotions, political information seeking, and learning via the Internet. Political Psychology,