Almond, G. A., & Verba, S. (1989).  The civic culture: Political attitudes and democracy in five nations. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications.
Baldi, S., Perie, M., Skidmore, D., & Greenberg, E. (2001). What democracy means to ninth-graders: U.S. results from the international IEA Civic Education Study. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
Beck, P. A., & Jennings, M. K. (1982). Pathways to participation. American Political Science Review, 76
Billig, S. (2000). Research on K-12 school based service learning: The evidence builds. Phi Delta Kappan, 81(9), 658–664.
Burns, N., Schlozman, K. L., & Verba, S. (2001). The private roots of public action: Gender, equality, and political participation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Campbell, D. E. (2002). The young and the realigning: A test of the socialization theory of realignment. Public Opinion Quarterly, 66
Campbell, D. E. (2006). Why we vote: How schools and communities shape our civic life. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Campbell, D. E. (2007). Sticking together: Classroom diversity and civic education. American Politics Research, 35
Campbell, D. E., & Wolbrecht, C. (2006). See Jane run: Women politicians as role models for adolescents. Journal of Politics, 68(2), 233–245.
Carnegie Corporation and CIRCLE. (2003). The civic mission of schools. Available at http://www.civicmissionofschools.org
Conover, P. J., & Searing, D. D. (2000). A political socialization perspective. In L. M. McDonnell, P. M. Timpane, & R. Benjamin (Eds.), Rediscovering the democratic purposes of education (pp. 91–124). Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas.
Delli Carpini, M. X., & Keeter, S. (1996). What Americans know about politics and why it matters. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Downs, A. (1957). An economic theory of democracy. New York: Harper and Brothers.
Easton, D., & Dennis, J. (1969). Children in the political system: Origins of political legitimacy. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Ehman, L. H. (1980). Change in high school students’ political attitudes as a function of social studies classroom climate. American Educational Research Journal, 17, 253–265.
Fiorina, M. P. (1976). The voting decision: Instrumental and expressive aspects. Journal of Politics, 38
Franklin, M. (2004). Voter turnout and the dynamics of electoral competition in established democracies since 1945. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Galston, W. A. (2003). Civic education and political participation. Phi Delta Kappan, 85(1), 29–33.
Gimpel, J. G., Lay, J. C., & Schuknecht, J. E. (2003). Cultivating democracy: Civic environments and political socialization in America. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Green, D. P., Gerber A. S., & Shachar, R. (2003). Voting may be habit forming: Evidence from a randomized field experiment. American Journal of Political Science, 47
Greenstein, F. I. (1965). Children and politics. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Hahn, C. L. (1998). Becoming political: Comparative perspectives on citizenship education. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, Albany.
Hanks, M. (1981). Youth, voluntary associations, and political socialization. Social Forces, 60
Hess, D. E. (2002a). Discussing controversial public issues in secondary social studies classrooms: Learning from skilled teachers. Theory and Research in Social Education, 30(1), 10–41.
Hess, D. E. (2002b). How high school students experience and learn from the discussion of controversial public issues. Journal of Curriculum and Supervision, 17(4), 283–314.
Hess, R. D., & Torney, J. V. (1967). The development of political attitudes in children. Chicago: Aldine Publishing.
Hibbing, J. R., & Theiss-Morse, E. (1996). Civics is not enough: Teaching barbarics in K-12. PS: Political Science and Politics, 29
Hibbing, J. R., & Theiss-Morse, E. (2002). Stealth democracy: Americans’ belief about how government should work. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hooghe, M., & Stolle, D. (2004). Good girls go to the polling booth, bad boys go everywhere: Gender differences in anticipated political participation among American fourteen-year-olds. Women and Politics, 26
Jennings, M. K., & Niemi, R. G. (1974). The political character of adolescence: The influence of families and schools. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Jennings, M. K., & Stoker, L. (2004). Social trust and civic engagement across time and generations. Acta Politica, 39
Knack, S. (1992). Civic norms, social sanctions, and voter turnout. Rationality and Society, 4
Knack, S., & Kropf, M. E. (1998). For shame! the effect of community cooperative context on the probability of voting. Political Psychology, 19
Langton, K. P., & Jennings, M. K. (1968). Political socialization and the high school civics curriculum in the United States. American Political Science Review, 62
Levine, P., & Lopez, M. H. (2002). Youth voting has declined, by any measure. College Park: Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement.
Macedo, S. (2000). Diversity and distrust: Civic education in a multicultural democracy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
McFarland, D. A., & Thomas, R. J. (2006). Bowling young: How youth voluntary associations influence adult political participation. American Sociological Review, 71
Miller, W. E., & Shanks, J. M. (1996). The new American voter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Murphy, J. B. (2003). Tug of war: The left, the right, and the struggle over civic education. Education Next, 3(4), 70–76.
Nie, N. H., Junn, J., & Stehlik-Berry, K. (1996). Education and democratic citizenship in America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Niemi, R. G., Hepburn, M. A., & Chapman, C. (2000). Community service by high school students: A cure for civic ills? Political Behavior, 22
Niemi, R. G., & Junn, J. (1998). Civic education: What makes students learn. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Plutzer, E. (2002). Becoming a habitual voter: inertia, resources and growth in young adulthood. American Political Science Review, 96
Putnam, R. D. (2000). Bowling alone: The collapse and revival of American community. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Riker, W., & Ordeshook, P. C. (1968). A theory of the calculus of voting. American Political Science Review, 62
Sapiro, V. (2004). Not your parents’ political socialization: Introduction for a new generation. Annual Review of Political Science, 7
Schlozman, K. L., Verba, S., & Brady, H. E. (1995). Participation’s not a paradox: The view from American activists. British Journal of Political Science, 25
Sears, D. O., & Valentino, N. A. (1997). Politics matters: Political events as catalysts for preadult socialization. American Political Science Review, 91
Smith, E. S. (1999). The effects of investments in the social capital of youth on political and civic behavior in young adulthood: A longitudinal analysis. Political Psychology, 20
Torney, J. V., Oppenheim, A. N., & Farnen, R. F. (1975). Civic education in ten countries. New York: Wiley.
Torney-Purta, J. (2001–2002). What adolescents know about citizenship and democracy. Educational Leadership, 59(4), 45–50.
Torney-Purta, J. (2002). The school’s role in developing civic engagement: A study of adolescents in twenty-eight countries. Applied Developmental Science, 6
Torney-Purta, J., Barber, C. H., & Wilkenfeld, B. (2007). Latino adolescents’ civic development in the United States: Research results from the IEA civic education study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36(111–125).
Torney-Purta, J., & Richardson, W. K. (2005). Anticipated political engagement among adolescents in Australia, England, Norway, and the United States. In J. Demaine (Ed.). Citizenship and political education today. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
U.S. Department of Education. (2002). Common core of data
. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics, http://nces.ed.gov/ccd
Verba, S., Schlozman, K. L., & Brady, H. E. (1995). Voice and equality: Civic voluntarism in American politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Walker, T. (2002). Service as a pathway to political participation: what research tells us. Applied Developmental Science, 6
Wattenberg M. P. (2002). Where have all the voters gone? Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Williams, T., Roey, S., Smith, C., Moore, D., Kastberg, D., & Fowler, J. (2002). The 1999 IEA civic education study United States user’s guide. Washington, DC: U.S Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement.
Wolbrecht, C., & Campbell, D. E. (2007). Leading by example: Female members of parliament as political role models. American Journal of Political Science, 51
Youniss, J., McLellan, J. A., & Yates, M. (1997). What we know about engendering civic identity. American Behavioral Scientist, 40
Youniss, J., & Yates, M. (1997). Community service and social responsibility in youth. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Zukin, C., Keeter, S., Andolina, M., Jenkins, K., & Delli Carpini, M. X. (2006). A new engagement? Political participation, civic life, and the changing American citizen. New York: Oxford University Press.