Plant and Soil

, Volume 359, Issue 1, pp 121–136

Exposure to warming and CO2 enrichment promotes greater above-ground biomass, nitrogen, phosphorus and arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in newly established grasslands

  • Costanza Zavalloni
  • Sara Vicca
  • Manu Büscher
  • Ivan E. de la Providencia
  • Hervé Dupré de Boulois
  • Stéphane Declerck
  • Ivan Nijs
  • Reinhart Ceulemans
Regular Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11104-012-1190-y

Cite this article as:
Zavalloni, C., Vicca, S., Büscher, M. et al. Plant Soil (2012) 359: 121. doi:10.1007/s11104-012-1190-y

Abstract

Aims

In view of the projected increase in global air temperature and CO2 concentration, the effects of climatic changes on biomass production, CO2 fluxes and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) colonization in newly established grassland communities were investigated. We hypothesized that above- and below-ground biomass, gross primary productivity (GPP), AMF root colonization and nutrient acquisition would increase in response to the future climate conditions. Furthermore, we expected that increased below-ground C allocation would enhance soil respiration (Rsoil).

Methods

Grassland communities were grown either at ambient temperatures with 375 ppm CO2 (Amb) or at ambient temperatures +3°C with 620 ppm CO2 (T+CO2).

Results

Total biomass production and GPP were stimulated under T+CO2. Above-ground biomass was increased under T+CO2 while belowground biomass was similar under both climates. The significant increase in root colonization intensity under T+CO2, and therefore the better contact between roots and AMF, probably determined the higher above-ground P and N content. Rsoil was not significantly affected by the future climate conditions, only showing a tendency to increase under future climate at the end of the season.

Conclusions

Newly established grasslands benefited from the exposure to elevated CO2 and temperature in terms of total biomass production; higher root AMF colonization may partly provide the nutrients required to sustain this growth response.

Keywords

Climate warming Elevated CO2 Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Soil respiration GPP Roots Nitrogen Phosphorus 

Supplementary material

11104_2012_1190_MOESM1_ESM.doc (46 kb)
Figure 6Soil respiration (Rsoil) as a function of soil temperature in grassland communities exposed to ambient temperature and 375 ppm of CO2 (Amb, figs. a–e) or ambient temperature +3°C and 620 ppm of CO2 (T+CO2, figs f–j) measured at the end of the growing season (November). Individual regressions were fitted for each community (replication) in each climate. Dots represent measured values and lines represent the regression fitted with equation 2. (DOC 46 kb)
11104_2012_1190_MOESM2_ESM.doc (414 kb)
Figure 7Experimental design of the 10 climate-controlled chambers. Communities in chambers with odd numbers were exposed to ambient Tair and 375 ppm CO2 (Amb), while the ones in chambers with even number were exposed to ambient Tair +3°C and 620 ppm CO2 (future climate, T+CO2). Communities inside the chambers in green were used for the experiment. Inside each container, the 18 plants were arranged with the scheme depicted in the example above. At transplanting, soil respiration chambers were installed on the bare soil between plants. (DOC 414 kb)
11104_2012_1190_MOESM3_ESM.doc (724 kb)
Figure 8Inside view of a climate-controlled chamber with established grasslands communities. (DOC 724 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Costanza Zavalloni
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sara Vicca
    • 1
  • Manu Büscher
    • 1
  • Ivan E. de la Providencia
    • 3
    • 4
  • Hervé Dupré de Boulois
    • 3
  • Stéphane Declerck
    • 3
  • Ivan Nijs
    • 1
    • 5
  • Reinhart Ceulemans
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Group of Plant and Vegetation Ecology, Department of BiologyUniversity of Antwerp (Campus Drie Eiken)WilrijkBelgium
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural and Environmental SciencesUniversity of UdineUdineItaly
  3. 3.Université catholique de Louvain, Unité de MicrobiologieLouvain-la-NeuveBelgium
  4. 4.Biodiversity CentreUniversité de MontrealMontrealCanada
  5. 5.King Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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