Plant and Soil

, Volume 314, Issue 1, pp 67–76

Long-term manuring and fertilization effects on soil organic carbon pools under a wheat–maize cropping system in North China Plain

  • Wei Gong
  • Xiao-yuan Yan
  • Jing-yan Wang
  • Ting-xing Hu
  • Yuan-bo Gong
Regular Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11104-008-9705-2

Cite this article as:
Gong, W., Yan, X., Wang, J. et al. Plant Soil (2009) 314: 67. doi:10.1007/s11104-008-9705-2

Abstract

The effects of organic manure and chemical fertilizer on total soil organic carbon (CT), water-soluble organic C (CWS), microbial biomass C (CMB), labile C (CL), C mineralization, C storage and sequestration, and the role of carbon management index (CMI) in soil quality evaluation were studied under a wheat–maize cropping system in a long-term experiment, which was established in 1989 in the North China Plain. The experiment included seven treatments: (1) OM: application of organic manure; (2) 1/2OMN: application of half organic manure plus chemical fertilizer NPK; (3) NPK: balanced application of chemical fertilizer NPK; (4) NP: application of chemical fertilizer NP; (5) PK: application of chemical fertilizer PK; (6) NK: application of chemical fertilizer NK; and (7) CK: unfertilized control. Application of organic manure (OM and 1/2OMN) was more effective for increasing CT, CWS, CMB, CL, C mineralization, and CMI, as compared with application of chemical fertilizer alone. For the chemical fertilizer treatments, balanced application of NPK (treatment 3) showed higher CT, CWS, CMB, CL, C mineralization, and CMI than the unbalanced use of fertilizers (treatments 4, 5, and 6). The C storage in the OM and 1/2OMN treatments were increased by 58.0% and 26.6%, respectively, over the NPK treatment, which had 5.9–25.4% more C storage than unbalanced use of fertilizers. The contents of CWS, CMB, and CL in organic manure treatments (treatments 1 and 2) were increased by 139.7–260.5%, 136.7–225.7%, and 150.0–240.5%, respectively, as compared to the CK treatment. The CMI was found to be a useful index to assess the changes of soil quality induced by soil management practices due to its significant correlation with soil bulk density and C fractions. The OM and 1/2OMN treatments were not a feasible option for farmers, but a feasible option for sequestering soil carbon, especially for the OM treatment. The NPK treatment was important for increasing crop yields, organic material inputs, and soil C fractions, so it could increase the sustainability of cropping system in the North China Plain.

Keywords

Long-term fertilization experimentOrganic carbon fractionsCarbon management indexNorth China Plain

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wei Gong
    • 1
    • 2
  • Xiao-yuan Yan
    • 1
  • Jing-yan Wang
    • 2
  • Ting-xing Hu
    • 2
  • Yuan-bo Gong
    • 2
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil ScienceChinese Academy of SciencesNanjingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Sichuan Provincial Key Laboratory of Ecological Forestry EngineeringSichuan Agricultural UniversityYa’anPeople’s Republic of China