The Impact of Nitrogen Placement and Tillage on NO, N 2O, CH 4 and CO 2 Fluxes from a Clay Loam Soil Article Received: 10 June 2005 Accepted: 06 September 2005 DOI:
Cite this article as: Liu, X.J., Mosier, A.R., Halvorson, A.D. et al. Plant Soil (2006) 280: 177. doi:10.1007/s11104-005-2950-8 Abstract
To evaluate the impact of N placement depth and no-till (NT) practice on the emissions of NO, N
2O, CH 4 and CO 2 from soils, we conducted two N placement experiments in a long-term tillage experiment site in northeastern Colorado in 2004. Trace gas flux measurements were made 2–3 times per week, in zero-N fertilizer plots that were cropped continuously to corn ( Zea mays L.) under conventional-till (CT) and NT. Three N placement depths, replicated four times (5, 10 and 15 cm in Exp. 1 and 0, 5 and 10 cm in Exp. 2, respectively) were used. Liquid urea–ammonium nitrate (UAN, 224 kg N ha −1) was injected to the desired depth in the CT- or NT-soils in each experiment. Mean flux rates of NO, N 2O, CH 4 and CO 2 ranged from 3.9 to 5.2 μg N m −2 h −1, 60.5 to 92.4 μg N m −2 h −1, −0.8 to 0.5 μg C m −2 h −1, and 42.1 to 81.7 mg C m −2 h −1 in both experiments, respectively. Deep N placement (10 and 15 cm) resulted in lower NO and N 2O emissions compared with shallow N placement (0 and 5 cm) while CH 4 and CO 2 emissions were not affected by N placement in either experiment. Compared with N placement at 5 cm, for instance, averaged N 2O emissions from N placement at 10 cm were reduced by more than 50% in both experiments. Generally, NT decreased NO emission and CH 4 oxidation but increased N 2O emissions compared with CT irrespective of N placement depths. Total net global warming potential (GWP) for N 2O, CH 4 and CO 2 was reduced by deep N placement only in Exp. 1 but was increased by NT in both experiments. The study results suggest that deep N placement (e.g., 10 cm) will be an effective option for reducing N oxide emissions and GWP from both fertilized CT- and NT-soils. Keywords application depth GWP nitrogen fertilizer no-till trace gas emissions References Anderson, I C, Levine, J S 1986 Relative rates of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide production by nitrifiers, denitrifiers and nitrate respires Appl. Environ. Micro. 51 938 945 Google Scholar Azam, F, Müller, C, Weiske, A, Nenckiser, G, Ottow, J C G 2002 Nitrification and denitrification as sources of atmospheric nitrous oxide – role of oxidizable carbon and applied nitrogen Biol. Fertil. Soils 35 54 61 Google Scholar Campbell, C A, Selles, F, Lafond, G P, Zentne, R P 2001 Adopting zero tillage management: Impact on soil C and N under long-term crop rotations in a thin Black Chernozem Can. J. Soil Sci. 81 139 148 Google Scholar Cole, C V, Duxbury, J, Freney, J, Heinemeyer, O, Minami, K, Mosier, A, Paustian, K, Rosenberg, N, Sampson, N, Sauerbeck, D, Zhao, Q 1997 Global estimates of potential mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions by agriculture Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosys. 49 221 228 CrossRef Google Scholar Davidson, E A 1991 Fluxes of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide from terrestrial ecosystems Rogers, J E Whitman, W B eds. Microbial Production and Consumption of Greenhouse Gases: Methane, Nitrogen Oxides and Halomethanes American Society of Microbiology Washington D C 219 235 Google Scholar Davidson, E A, Verchot, L V 2000 Testing the hole-in-the-pipe model of nitric and nitrous oxide emissions from soils using the TRAGNET database Global Biogeochem. Cy. 14 1035 1043 CrossRef Google Scholar
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