, Volume 270, Issue 1, pp 371-382

Effects of long-term NP-fertilization on abundance and diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under a maize cropping system

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Abstract

Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in 27-year long-term NP-fertilization plots under a maize cropping system in Thailand was studied through spore morphological characterization. The plots received 0–0, 60–60, 120–120 and 180–180 kg N-P2O5 ha−1 year−1 as ammonium sulfate and triple superphosphate. The plots were sampled monthly for one year, the AMF spores were counted and morphotyped, and taxa were identified after morphotyping and monospecific pot culture. Spore number g−1 soil, relative spore abundance and Shannon-Wiener indexes were calculated. Sixteen putative taxa were recorded from the field of which nine sporulated on maize roots in pot culture. The long-term fertilization caused decreases in AMF total spore numbers and variation in species diversity depended on sampling time. Effects of fertilization on spore number and also relative spore abundance varied with species and sampling time. Among the nine species sporulating under maize, only Acaulospora sp.1 showed no change (P > 0.003 after Bonferroni correction) in spore number with fertilization in the field; and was therefore classified as an AMF species insensitive to fertilization. Spores of Entrophospora schenckii, Glomus mosseae, Glomus sp.1, Glomus geosporum-like and Scutellospora fulgida, though they decreased in absolute numbers in response to fertilization, showed no change (P > 0.003 after Bonferroni correction) in relative abundance; these species were classified as AMF species slightly sensitive to fertilization. Three unidentified species of Glomus, though they decreased in absolute numbers in response to fertilization, showed decreases (P < 0.003 after Bonferroni correction) in relative abundance; these species were classified as AMF species highly sensitive to fertilization.