, Volume 67, Issue 6, pp 581-588
Date: 03 Jun 2008

An overview of the apple genome through BAC end sequence analysis

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The apple, Malus × domestica Borkh., is one of the most important fruit trees grown worldwide. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map of the apple genome has been recently constructed. Based on this physical map, a total of ∼2,100 clones from different contigs (overlapping BAC clones) have been selected and sequenced at both ends, generating 3,744 high-quality BAC end sequences (BESs) including 1,717 BAC end pairs. Approximately 8.5% of BESs contain simple sequence repeats (SSRs), most of which are AT/TA dimer repeats. Potential transposable elements are identified in ∼21% of BESs, and most of these elements are retrotransposons. About 11% of BESs have homology to the Arabidopsis protein database. The matched proteins cover a broad range of categories. The average GC content of the predicted coding regions of BESs is 42.4%; while, that of the whole BESs is 39%. A small number of BES pairs were mapped to neighboring chromosome regions of A. thaliana and Populus trichocarpa; whereas, no pairs are mapped to the Oryza sativa genome. The apple has a higher degree of synteny with the closely related Populus than with the distantly related Arabidopsis. BAC end sequencing can be used to anchor a small proportion of the apple genome to the Populus and possibly to the Arabidopsis genomes.