Plant Molecular Biology

, Volume 58, Issue 3, pp 435–445

The modified ABC model explains the development of the petaloid perianth of Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis (Agapanthaceae) flowers


  • Toru Nakamura
    • Graduate School of Life SciencesTohoku University
  • Tatsuya Fukuda
    • Graduate School of Life SciencesTohoku University
  • Masaru Nakano
    • Faculty of AgricultureNiigata University
  • Mitsuyasu Hasebe
    • National Institute for Basic Biology, Department of Molecular BiomechanicsThe Graduate University for Advanced Studies
  • Toshiaki Kameya
    • Graduate School of Life SciencesTohoku University
    • Graduate School of Life SciencesTohoku University

DOI: 10.1007/s11103-005-5218-z

Cite this article as:
Nakamura, T., Fukuda, T., Nakano, M. et al. Plant Mol Biol (2005) 58: 435. doi:10.1007/s11103-005-5218-z


The class B genes, which belong to the MADS-box gene family, play important roles in regulating the development of petals and stamens in flowering plants. To understand the molecular mechanisms of floral development in Agapanthuspraecox ssp. orientalis (Agapanthaceae), we isolated and characterized the homologs of the Antirrhinum majus genes GLOBOSA and DEFICIENS in this plant. These were designated as ApGLO and ApDEF, respectively. ApGLO and ApDEF contain open reading frames that encode deduced protein with 210 and 214 amino acid residues, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that ApGLO and ApDEF belong to the monocot class B gene family. In situ hybridization experiments revealed that hybridization signals of ApGLO and ApDEF were observed in whorl 1 as well as in whorls 2 and 3. Moreover, the flowers of transgenic Arabidopsis plants that ectopically expressed ApGLO formed petal-like organs in whorl 1. These observations indicate that the flower developmental mechanism of Agapanthus follows the modified ABC model.


Agapanthus praecoxclass B geneflower developmentMADS-box genemodified ABC model

Copyright information

© Springer 2005