Plant Molecular Biology

, Volume 58, Issue 3, pp 435-445

First online:

The modified ABC model explains the development of the petaloid perianth of Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis (Agapanthaceae) flowers

  • Toru NakamuraAffiliated withGraduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University
  • , Tatsuya FukudaAffiliated withGraduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University
  • , Masaru NakanoAffiliated withFaculty of Agriculture, Niigata University
  • , Mitsuyasu HasebeAffiliated withNational Institute for Basic Biology, Department of Molecular Biomechanics, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies
  • , Toshiaki KameyaAffiliated withGraduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University
  • , Akira KannoAffiliated withGraduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University Email author 

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The class B genes, which belong to the MADS-box gene family, play important roles in regulating the development of petals and stamens in flowering plants. To understand the molecular mechanisms of floral development in Agapanthus praecox ssp. orientalis (Agapanthaceae), we isolated and characterized the homologs of the Antirrhinum majus genes GLOBOSA and DEFICIENS in this plant. These were designated as ApGLO and ApDEF, respectively. ApGLO and ApDEF contain open reading frames that encode deduced protein with 210 and 214 amino acid residues, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that ApGLO and ApDEF belong to the monocot class B gene family. In situ hybridization experiments revealed that hybridization signals of ApGLO and ApDEF were observed in whorl 1 as well as in whorls 2 and 3. Moreover, the flowers of transgenic Arabidopsis plants that ectopically expressed ApGLO formed petal-like organs in whorl 1. These observations indicate that the flower developmental mechanism of Agapanthus follows the modified ABC model.


Agapanthus praecox class B gene flower development MADS-box gene modified ABC model