Epidemiology of Traumatic Brain Injury and Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
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- León-Carrión, J., Domínguez-Morales, M.., Barroso y Martín, J.M. et al. Pituitary (2005) 8: 197. doi:10.1007/s11102-006-6041-5
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Incidence rates of traumatic brain injury are high in both industrialized and non-industrialized countries and have been estimated variously to be between 150–250 cases per 100,000 population per year. The estimated incidence rates for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are between 10 to 25 cases per 100,000 population per year. Seasonal variation in the occurrence of subarachnoid hemorrhage has been reported in studies from different countries, with significant seasonal variations and peak periods for aneurysmal SAH differing widely. A differential racial distribution for SAH has been found as well as a higher mortality rate for women than for men. The cognitive and behavioral consequences of TBI and SAH are significant and affect the quality of life of patients and their families. Recent publications have informed of hypopituitary deficits in patients sustaining TBI or SAH. It is not clear whether the cognitive deficits found in these patients are due to the consequences of the brain injury itself or are related to the hypopituitary deficits. There is a need for research distinguishing the differential cognitive and behavioral effects of the brain injury and the endocrinological deficits in these patients, and for developing adequate treatment.