Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 670–682

Protected Graft Copolymer Excipient Leads to a Higher Acute Maximum Tolerated Dose and Extends Residence Time of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide Significantly Better than Sterically Stabilized Micelles

  • Sandra Reichstetter
  • Gerardo M. Castillo
  • Israel Rubinstein
  • Akiko Nishimoto-Ashfield
  • ManShun Lai
  • Cynthia C. Jones
  • Aryamitra Banjeree
  • Alex Lyubimov
  • Duane C. Bloedow
  • Alexei BogdanovJr.
  • Elijah M. Bolotin
Research Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s11095-012-0904-4

Cite this article as:
Reichstetter, S., Castillo, G.M., Rubinstein, I. et al. Pharm Res (2013) 30: 670. doi:10.1007/s11095-012-0904-4

ABSTRACT

Purpose

To determine and compare pharmacokinetics and toxicity of two nanoformulations of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP).

Methods

VIP was formulated using a micellar (Sterically Stabilized Micelles, SSM) and a polymer-based (Protected Graft Copolymer, PGC) nanocarrier at various loading percentages. VIP binding to the nanocarriers, pharmacokinetics, blood pressure, blood chemistry, and acute maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the formulations after injection into BALB/c mice were determined.

Results

Both formulations significantly extend in vivo residence time compared to unformulated VIP. Formulation toxicity is dependent on loading percentage, showing major differences between the two carrier types. Both formulations increase in vivo potency of unformulated VIP and show acute MTDs at least 140 times lower than unformulated VIP, but still at least 100 times higher than the anticipated highest human dose, 1–5 μg/kg. These nanocarriers prevented a significant drop in arterial blood pressure compared to unformulated VIP.

Conclusions

While both carriers enhance in vivo residence time compared to unformulated VIP and reduce the drop in blood pressure immediately after injection, PGC is the excipient of choice to extend residence time and improve the safety of potent therapeutic peptides such as VIP.

Figure

Pharmacokinetics of VIP after SC injection of 100 μg/kg in BALB/c mice (n = 5). (a) Overview of entire 72 h sampling period, (b) the first 6 h shown in detail. VIP quantitation in serum samples was by competitive ELISA. LOD: level of detection.

KEY WORDS

long-acting vasoactive intestinal peptide maximum tolerated dose nanocarrier protected graft copolymer sterically stabilized micelles 

ABBREVIATIONS

MRT

mean residence time

MTD

maximum tolerated dose

PGC

protected graft copolymer

PK

pharmacokinetics

SSM

sterically stabilized micelles

VIP

vasoactive intestinal peptide

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sandra Reichstetter
    • 1
  • Gerardo M. Castillo
    • 1
  • Israel Rubinstein
    • 2
    • 3
  • Akiko Nishimoto-Ashfield
    • 1
  • ManShun Lai
    • 1
  • Cynthia C. Jones
    • 1
  • Aryamitra Banjeree
    • 4
  • Alex Lyubimov
    • 4
  • Duane C. Bloedow
    • 5
  • Alexei BogdanovJr.
    • 6
  • Elijah M. Bolotin
    • 1
  1. 1.PharmaIN Corp.BothellUSA
  2. 2.College of MedicineThe University of IllinoisChicagoUSA
  3. 3.Jesse Brown VA Medical CenterChicagoUSA
  4. 4.College of MedicineThe University of IllinoisChicagoUSA
  5. 5.School of PharmacyThe University of WashingtonSeattleUSA
  6. 6.University of Massachusetts Medical SchoolWorcesterUSA