Research Paper

Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 29, Issue 12, pp 3393-3403

First online:

Multi-Compartmental Vaccine Delivery System for Enhanced Immune Response to gp100 Peptide Antigen in Melanoma Immunotherapy

  • Mayurkumar KalariyaAffiliated withDepartment of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Northeastern University
  • , Srinivas GantaAffiliated withNemucore Medical Innovations, Inc.
  • , Mansoor AmijiAffiliated withDepartment of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, Northeastern University Email author 

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To develop a multi-compartmental vaccine delivery system for safe and efficient delivery of the gp100 peptide antigen in melanoma immunotherapy.


Water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) multiple emulsion-based multi-compartmental vaccine delivery system containing the gp100 peptide was prepared by a two-step emulsification method. In vivo prophylactic and active immunization effectiveness of the novel squalane oil-containing gp100 vaccine was evaluated in the murine B16 melanoma model and compared with that of an incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA)-based vaccine.


Morphological evaluation of the W/O/W multiple emulsions showed that the oil-droplets were homogenously dispersed with the gp100 peptide encapsulated in an inner aqueous phase. Immunization with the gp100 peptide delivered in the W/O/W multiple emulsions-based vaccine resulted in increased protection against tumor challenge compared to IFA-based vaccine (p < 0.05, n = 8) signifying induction of enhanced anti-tumor immunity. In addition, serum Th1 cytokine levels and immuno-histochemistry of excised tumor tissues indicated activation and local infiltration of antigen specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes into and/or surrounding the tumor mass. Moreover, the newly developed vaccine formulation did not induce any overt systemic toxicity.


Novel W/O/W multiple emulsions-based vaccine efficiently delivers the gp100 peptide antigen to induce cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity and offers an alternate, safe vaccine delivery system.


anti-tumor immunity cancer vaccine gp100 peptide antigen melanoma W/O/W multiple emulsions