, Volume 29, Issue 2, pp 375-383

Palmitoyl Ascorbate Liposomes and Free Ascorbic Acid: Comparison of Anticancer Therapeutic Effects Upon Parenteral Administration

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ABSTRACT

Purpose

To evaluate and compare anticancer therapeutic effect of palmitoyl ascorbate liposomes (PAL) and free ascorbic acid (AA).

Methods

Liposomes incorporating palmitoyl ascorbate (PA) were prepared and evaluated for PA content by HPLC. To elucidate mechanism of action of cell death in vitro, effect of various H2O2 scavengers and metal chelators on PA-mediated cytotoxicity was studied. Effect of various combinations of PAL and free AA on in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated on 4T1 cells. In vivo, PAL formulation was modified with polyethylene glycol; effect of PEGylation on in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated. Biodistribution of PEG-PAL formulation was investigated in female Balb/c mice bearing murine mammary carcinoma (4T1 cells). In vivo anticancer activity of PEG-PAL (PEG-PAL equivalent to 20 mg/kg of PA injected intravenously on alternate days) was compared with free AA therapy in same model.

Results

PEG-PAL treatment was significantly more effective than free AA treatment in slowing tumor growth.

Conclusions

Nanoparticle formulations incorporating PA can kill cancer cells in vitro. The mechanism of PA cytotoxicity is based on production of extracellular reactive oxygen species and involves intracellular transition metals.

Rupa R. Sawant and Onkar S. Vaze contributed equally to this study.