Modeling Sleep Data for a New Drug in Development using Markov Mixed-Effects Models
To characterize the time-course of sleep in insomnia patients as well as placebo and concentration-effect relationships of two hypnotic compounds, PD 0200390 and zolpidem, using an accelerated model-building strategy based on mixed-effects Markov models.
Data were obtained in a phase II study with the drugs. Sleep stages were recorded during eight hours of sleep for two nights per treatment for the five treatments. First-order Markov models were developed for one transition at a time in a sequential manner; first a baseline model, followed by placebo and lastly the drug models. To accelerate the process, predefined models were selected based on a priori knowledge of sleep, including inter-subject and inter-occasion variability.
Baseline sleep was described using piece-wise linear models, depending on time of night and duration of sleep stage. Placebo affected light sleep stages; drugs also affected slow-wave sleep. Administering PD 0200390 30 min earlier than standard dosing was shown through simulations to reduce latency to persistent sleep by 40%.
The proposed accelerated model-building strategy resulted in a model well describing sleep patterns of insomnia patients with and without treatments.