Research Paper

Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 28, Issue 2, pp 279-291

First online:

An Effective Strategy for the Synthesis of Biocompatible Gold Nanoparticles Using Cinnamon Phytochemicals for Phantom CT Imaging and Photoacoustic Detection of Cancerous Cells

  • Nripen ChandaAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, University of Missouri Email author 
  • , Ravi ShuklaAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, University of Missouri
  • , Ajit ZambreAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, University of Missouri
  • , Swapna MekapothulaAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, University of Missouri
  • , Rajesh R. KulkarniAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, University of Missouri
  • , Kavita KattiAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, University of Missouri
  • , Kiran BhattacharyyaAffiliated withDepartment of Biological Engineering, University of Missouri
  • , Genevieve M. FentAffiliated withDepartment of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Missouri
  • , Stan W. CasteelAffiliated withDepartment of Veterinary Pathobiology, University of Missouri
    • , Evan J. BooteAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, University of Missouri
    • , John A. ViatorAffiliated withDepartment of Biological Engineering, University of Missouri
    • , Anandhi UpendranAffiliated withNanoparticle Biochem, Inc.
    • , Raghuraman KannanAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, University of Missouri
    • , Kattesh V. KattiAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, University of Missouri

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ABSTRACT

Purpose

The purpose of the present study was to explore the utilization of cinnamon-coated gold nanoparticles (Cin-AuNPs) as CT/optical contrast-enhancement agents for detection of cancer cells.

Methods

Cin-AuNPs were synthesized by a “green” procedure, and the detailed characterization was performed by physico-chemical analysis. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake studies were carried out in normal human fibroblast and cancerous (PC-3 and MCF-7) cells, respectively. The efficacy of detecting cancerous cells was monitored using a photoacoustic technique. In vivo biodistribution was studied after IV injection of Cin-AuNPs in mice, and also a CT phantom model was generated.

Results

Biocompatible Cin-AuNPs were synthesized with high purity. Significant uptake of these gold nanoparticles was observed in PC-3 and MCF-7 cells. Cin-AuNPs internalized in cancerous cells facilitated detectable photoacoustic signals. In vivo biodistribution in normal mice showed steady accumulation of gold nanoparticles in lungs and rapid clearance from blood. Quantitative analysis of CT values in phantom model revealed that the cinnamon-phytochemical-coated AuNPs have reasonable attenuation efficiency.

Conclusions

The results indicate that these non-toxic Cin-AuNPs can serve as excellent CT/ photoacoustic contrast-enhancement agents and may provide a novel approach toward tumor detection through nanopharmaceuticals.

KEY WORDS

cancer cells cellular internalization cinnamon-stabilized gold nanoparticles in vivo biodistribution phantom CT imaging photoacoustic detection