Research Paper

Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 449-458

First online:

Cellular Phototoxicity Evoked Through the Inhibition of Human ABC Transporter ABCG2 by Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitors In vitro

  • Ran AnAffiliated withDepartment of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology
  • , Yuichiro HagiyaAffiliated withDepartment of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology
  • , Ai TamuraAffiliated withDepartment of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology
  • , Shanshan LiAffiliated withDepartment of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology
  • , Hikaru SaitoAffiliated withDepartment of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology
  • , Daisuke TokushimaAffiliated withNEC Corporation
  • , Toshihisa IshikawaAffiliated withDepartment of Biomolecular Engineering, Graduate School of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Tokyo Institute of Technology Email author 

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Abstract

Purpose

The physiological importance of the human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCG2 has been recognized with regard to porphyrin-mediated photosensitivity. Functional impairment owing to inhibition of ABCG2 by drugs or its genetic polymorphisms may lead to the disruption of porphyrin homeostasis, which in turn causes cellular toxicity.

Materials and Methods

We evaluated the impact on photosensitivity of the inhibition by cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors of ABCG2 function. For this purpose, we established new methods for photosensitivity assays by using Flp-In-293 cells and plasma membrane vesicles prepared from Sf9 insect cells. With the new methods, we subsequently tested CDK inhibitors, i.e., purvalanol A, WHI-P180, bohemine, roscovitine, and olomoucine.

Results

Among CDK inhibitors tested, purvalanol A was found to be the most potent inhibitor (IC50 = 3.5 μM) for ABCG2-mediated hematoporphyrin transport. At a concentration of 2.5 μM, it evoked the photosensitivity of ABCG2-expressing Flp-In-293 cells treated with pheophorbide a. WHI-P180 moderately inhibited ABCG2 function, exhibiting weak phototoxicity. In contrast, the phototoxicity of bohemine, roscovitine, and olomoucine were minimal in our assay system.

Conclusions

It is suggested that the planar structure is an important factor for interactions with the active site of ABCG2. The present study provides a new approach to studying drug-induced phototoxicity in vitro.

KEY WORDS

ABCG2 (BCRP/MXR) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor pheophorbide a phototoxicity porphyrin