Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 24, Issue 7, pp 1360–1368

Transdermal Delivery of Cytochrome C—A 12.4 kDa Protein—Across Intact Skin by Constant–Current Iontophoresis

  • J. Cázares-Delgadillo
  • A. Naik
  • A. Ganem-Rondero
  • D. Quintanar-Guerrero
  • Y. N. Kalia
Research Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s11095-007-9294-4

Cite this article as:
Cázares-Delgadillo, J., Naik, A., Ganem-Rondero, A. et al. Pharm Res (2007) 24: 1360. doi:10.1007/s11095-007-9294-4



To demonstrate the transdermal iontophoretic delivery of a small (12.4 kDa) protein across intact skin.

Materials and Methods

The iontophoretic transport of Cytochrome c (Cyt c) across porcine ear skin in vitro was investigated and quantified by HPLC. The effect of protein concentration (0.35 and 0.7 mM), current density (0.15, 0.3 or 0.5−2 applied for 8 h) and competing ions was evaluated. Co-iontophoresis of acetaminophen was employed to quantify the respective contributions of electromigration (EM) and electroosmosis (EO).


The data confirmed the transdermal iontophoretic delivery of intact Cyt c. Electromigration was the principal transport mechanism, accounting for ∼90% of delivery; correlation between EM flux and electrophoretic mobility was consistent with earlier results using small molecules. Modest EO inhibition was observed at 0.5−2. Cumulative permeation at 0.3 and 0.5−2 was significantly greater than that at 0.15−2; fluxes using 0.35 and 0.7 mM Cyt c in the absence of competing ions (Jtot = 182.8 ± 56.8 and 265.2 ± 149.1 μ−2.h−1, respectively) were statistically equivalent. Formulation in PBS (pH 8.2) confirmed the impact of competing charge carriers; inclusion of ∼170 mM Na+ resulted in a 3.9-fold decrease in total flux.


Significant amounts (∼0.9−2 over 8 h) of Cyt c were delivered non-invasively across intact skin by transdermal electrotransport.

Key words

cytochrome celectromigrationiontophoresisprotein deliveryskin permeation




Cyt c

cytochrome c


capillary zone electrophoresis





JEM, Cyt c

flux due to electromigration of Cyt c

JEO, Cyt c

flux due to electroosmosis of Cyt c

Jtot, Cyt c

total steady-state flux of Cyt c


convective solvent flow

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Cázares-Delgadillo
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. Naik
    • 1
    • 2
    • 4
  • A. Ganem-Rondero
    • 3
  • D. Quintanar-Guerrero
    • 3
  • Y. N. Kalia
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of Geneva & University of LausanneGenevaSwitzerland
  2. 2.“Pharmapeptides”Centre Interuniversitaire de Recherche et d’EnseignementArchampsFrance
  3. 3.División de Estudios de Posgrado (Tecnología Farmacéutica), Facultad de Estudios Superiores CuautitlánUniversidad Nacional Autónoma de MéxicoEstado de MéxicoMexico
  4. 4.Triskel Integrated Services SAGenevaSwitzerland