Pharmaceutical Research

, Volume 23, Issue 5, pp 847–863

Application of Micro- and Nano-Electromechanical Devices to Drug Delivery

  • Mark Staples
  • Karen Daniel
  • Michael J. Cima
  • Robert Langer
Expert Review

DOI: 10.1007/s11095-006-9906-4

Cite this article as:
Staples, M., Daniel, K., Cima, M.J. et al. Pharm Res (2006) 23: 847. doi:10.1007/s11095-006-9906-4

Abstract

Micro- and nano-electromechanical systems (MEMS and NEMS)-based drug delivery devices have become commercially-feasible due to converging technologies and regulatory accommodation. The FDA Office of Combination Products coordinates review of innovative medical therapies that join elements from multiple established categories: drugs, devices, and biologics. Combination products constructed using MEMS or NEMS technology offer revolutionary opportunities to address unmet medical needs related to dosing. These products have the potential to completely control drug release, meeting requirements for on-demand pulsatile or adjustable continuous administration for extended periods. MEMS or NEMS technologies, materials science, data management, and biological science have all significantly developed in recent years, providing a multidisciplinary foundation for developing integrated therapeutic systems. If small-scale biosensor and drug reservoir units are combined and implanted, a wireless integrated system can regulate drug release, receive sensor feedback, and transmit updates. For example, an “artificial pancreas” implementation of an integrated therapeutic system would improve diabetes management. The tools of microfabrication technology, information science, and systems biology are being combined to design increasingly sophisticated drug delivery systems that promise to significantly improve medical care.

Key Words

combination productsdrug deliveryintegrated medical systemsmicroelectromechanical systems (MEMS)nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS)

Abbreviations

ANN

artificial neural network

AUC

area under the plasma drug concentration vs. time curve; a measure of drug exposure

BCNU

carmustine, an antineoplastic agent

Bio-IT

convergence of bioscience with information technology

BLA

biologics license application

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

DRIE

deep-reactive ion etching

FDA

Food and Drug Administration of the United States Dept. of Health and Human Services

HGH

humangrowth hormone

NDA

New Drug Application

MEMS

micro‐electromechanical systems

NEMS

nano‐electromechanical systems

OCP

Office of Combination Products

PDMS

polydimethylsiloxane

PLA

poly(L-lactic acid)

PLGA

poly(lactide-co-glycolide)

PMA

Premarket Approval (Device Application)

PMMA

polymethylmethacrylate

PZT

piezoelectric transducer

SD

standard deviation

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark Staples
    • 1
  • Karen Daniel
    • 2
  • Michael J. Cima
    • 3
  • Robert Langer
    • 2
  1. 1.MicroCHIPS, Inc.BedfordUSA
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  3. 3.Department of Materials Science and EngineeringMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA