Real-time Imaging and Quantification of Brain Delivery of Liposomes
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The surgical delivery of therapeutic agents into the parenchyma of the brain is problematic because it has been virtually impossible to know with any certainty where infused material is going, and how much to infuse. We have started to use liposomes loaded with Gadoteridol (GDL) as a tracer that allows us to follow infusions in real-time on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI allows precise tracking and measurement of liposomes loaded with markers and therapeutics. This review provides an overview of real-time delivery of liposomes to the central nervous system (CNS), and discusses the technical aspects of delivery, liposomes as colloidal systems of delivery, real-time distribution of liposomes in CNS, and quantification of liposome distribution. Our data suggests that real-time monitoring of liposomal drug infusion is likely to improve outcomes of clinical trials where convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is being used to target drugs to specific brain structures through limitation of systemic toxicity and reduction of side effects. This review is a summary of work done by our group over the past four years.
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- Real-time Imaging and Quantification of Brain Delivery of Liposomes
Volume 23, Issue 11 , pp 2493-2504
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Kluwer Academic Publishers-Plenum Publishers
- Additional Links
- blood–brain barrier
- convection-enhanced delivery
- direct drug delivery
- Industry Sectors
- Author Affiliations
- 1. Department of Neurological Surgery, Laboratory for Molecular Therapeutics, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, USA
- 3. Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California, 94143, USA
- 2. Department of Neurological Surgery, University of California, San Francisco, 1855 Folsom Street, Mission Center Building Room 226, San Francisco, California, 94103, USA