Fabrication and characterization of 1.55 μm single transverse mode large diameter electrically pumped VECSEL
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- Bousseksou, A., Bouchoule, S., Kurdi, M.E. et al. Opt Quant Electron (2006) 38: 1269. doi:10.1007/s11082-007-9060-1
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We report on the design, fabrication, and characterization of InP-based 1.55 μm wavelength large diameter (50 μm) electrically pumped vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers (EP-VECSELs). The hybrid device consists of a half vertical cavity surface emitting laser (1/2-VCSEL) structure assembled with a concave dielectric external mirror. The 1/2-VCSEL is monolithically grown on InP substrate and includes a semiconductor Bragg mirror and a tunnel junction for electrical injection. Buried (BTJ) and ion implanted (ITJ) tunnel junction electrical confinement schemes are compared in terms of their thermal and electrical characteristics. Lower thermal resistance values are measured for BJT, but reduced current crowding effects and uniform current injection are evidenced for ITJ. Using the ITJ technique, we demonstrate Room-Temperature (RT) continuous-wave (CW) single transverse mode laser operation from 50-μm diameter EP-VECSEL devices. We show that the experimental laser optical output versus injected current (L–I) curves are well-reproduced by a simple analytical thermal model, consistent with the thermal resistance measurements performed on the 1/2-VCSEL structure. Our results indicate that thermal heating is the main mechanism limiting the maximum CW output power of 50-μm diameter VECSELs, rather than current injection inhomogeneity.