Sensor Network Localization, Euclidean Distance Matrix completions, and graph realization Yichuan Ding Nathan Krislock Jiawei Qian Henry Wolkowicz Email author Article First Online: 19 November 2008 Received: 20 February 2007 Accepted: 27 October 2008 DOI :
10.1007/s11081-008-9072-0

Cite this article as: Ding, Y., Krislock, N., Qian, J. et al. Optim Eng (2010) 11: 45. doi:10.1007/s11081-008-9072-0
Abstract We study Semidefinite Programming, SDP , relaxations for Sensor Network Localization, SNL , with anchors and with noisy distance information. The main point of the paper is to view SNL as a (nearest) Euclidean Distance Matrix, EDM , completion problem that does not distinguish between the anchors and the sensors. We show that there are advantages for using the well studied EDM model. In fact, the set of anchors simply corresponds to a given fixed clique for the graph of the EDM problem.

We next propose a method of projection when large cliques or dense subgraphs are identified. This projection reduces the size, and improves the stability, of the relaxation. In addition, by viewing the problem as an EDM completion problem, we are able to derive a new approximation scheme for the sensors from the SDP approximation. This yields, on average, better low rank approximations for the low dimensional realizations. This further emphasizes the theme that SNL is in fact just an EDM problem.

We solve the SDP relaxations using a primal-dual interior/exterior-point algorithm based on the Gauss-Newton search direction. By not restricting iterations to the interior, we usually get lower rank optimal solutions and thus, better approximations for the SNL problem. We discuss the relative stability and strength of two formulations and the corresponding algorithms that are used. In particular, we show that the quadratic formulation arising from the SDP relaxation is better conditioned than the linearized form that is used in the literature.

Keywords Sensor Network Localization Anchors Graph realization Euclidean Distance Matrix completions Semidefinite Programming Research supported by Natural Sciences Engineering Research Council Canada.

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Authors and Affiliations Yichuan Ding Nathan Krislock Jiawei Qian Henry Wolkowicz Email author 1. Department of Combinatorics and Optimization University of Waterloo Waterloo Canada