, Volume 53, Issue 2-3, pp 153-170
Date: 14 Mar 2009

Trees and numerical methods for ordinary differential equations

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This paper presents a review of the role played by trees in the theory of Runge–Kutta methods. The use of trees is in contrast to early publications on numerical methods, in which a deceptively simpler approach was used. This earlier approach is not only non-rigorous, but also incorrect. It is now known, for example, that methods can have different orders when applied to a single equation and when applied to a system of equations; the earlier approach cannot show this. Trees have a central role in the theory of Runge–Kutta methods and they also have applications to more general methods, involving multiple values and multiple stages.