Review

Neuropsychology Review

, Volume 20, Issue 4, pp 362-375

First online:

Development of the Brain’s Functional Network Architecture

  • Alecia C. VogelAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine Email author 
  • , Jonathan D. PowerAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine
  • , Steven E. PetersenAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, Washington University School of MedicineDepartment of Radiology, Washington University School of MedicineDepartment of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of MedicineDepartment of Psychology, Washington University in St. Louis
  • , Bradley L. SchlaggarAffiliated withDepartment of Neurology, Washington University School of MedicineDepartment of Radiology, Washington University School of MedicineDepartment of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Washington University School of MedicineDepartment of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine

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Abstract

A full understanding of the development of the brain’s functional network architecture requires not only an understanding of developmental changes in neural processing in individual brain regions but also an understanding of changes in inter-regional interactions. Resting state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) is increasingly being used to study functional interactions between brain regions in both adults and children. We briefly review methods used to study functional interactions and networks with rs-fcMRI and how these methods have been used to define developmental changes in network functional connectivity. The developmental rs-fcMRI studies to date have found two general properties. First, regional interactions change from being predominately anatomically local in children to interactions spanning longer cortical distances in young adults. Second, this developmental change in functional connectivity occurs, in general, via mechanisms of segregation of local regions and integration of distant regions into disparate subnetworks.

Keywords

Functional connectivity Graph theory fMRI Segregation Integration