Neuropsychology Review

, Volume 20, Issue 3, pp 236-260

First online:

The Role of the Cerebellum in Cognition and Emotion: Personal Reflections Since 1982 on the Dysmetria of Thought Hypothesis, and Its Historical Evolution from Theory to Therapy

  • Jeremy D. SchmahmannAffiliated withAtaxia Unit, Cognitive/Behavioral Neurology Unit, Laboratory for Neuroanatomy and Cerebellar Neurobiology, Department of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical SchoolDepartment of Neurology, Massachusetts General Hospital Email author 

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The cognitive neuroscience of the cerebellum is now an established multidisciplinary field of investigation. This essay traces the historical evolution of this line of inquiry from an emerging field to its current status, with personal reflections over almost three decades on this journey of discovery. It pays tribute to early investigators who recognized the wider role of the cerebellum beyond motor control, traces the origins of new terms and concepts including the dysmetria of thought theory, the universal cerebellar transform, and the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome, and places these developments within the broader context of the scientific efforts of a growing community of cerebellar cognitive neuroscientists. This account considers the converging evidence from theoretical, anatomical, physiological, clinical, and functional neuroimaging approaches that have resulted in the transition from recognizing the cerebellar incorporation into the distributed neural circuits subserving cognition and emotion, to a hopeful new era of treatment of neurocognitive and neuropsychiatric manifestations of cerebellar diseases, and to cerebellar-based interventions for psychiatric disorders.


Cerebrocerebellar system Cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome Ataxia Behavior Psychosis Schizophrenia Autism History