Neuropsychology Review

, Volume 18, Issue 3, pp 255–268

Neuropsychological, Cognitive, and Theoretical Considerations for Evaluation of Bilingual Individuals

  • Monica Rivera Mindt
  • Alyssa Arentoft
  • Kaori Kubo Germano
  • Erica D’Aquila
  • Diane Scheiner
  • Maria Pizzirusso
  • Tiffany C. Sandoval
  • Tamar H. Gollan
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s11065-008-9069-7

Cite this article as:
Rivera Mindt, M., Arentoft, A., Kubo Germano, K. et al. Neuropsychol Rev (2008) 18: 255. doi:10.1007/s11065-008-9069-7

Abstract

As the number of bilinguals in the USA grows rapidly, it is increasingly important for neuropsychologists to be equipped and trained to address the unique challenges inherent in conducting ethical and competent neuropsychological evaluations with this population. Research on bilingualism has focused on two key cognitive mechanisms that introduce differences between bilinguals and monolinguals: (a) reduced frequency of language-specific use (weaker links), and (b) competition for selection within the language system in bilinguals (interference). Both mechanisms are needed to explain how bilingualism affects neuropsychological test performance, including the robust bilingual disadvantages found on verbal tasks, and more subtle bilingual advantages on some measures of cognitive control. These empirical results and theoretical claims can be used to derive a theoretically informed method for assessing cognitive status in bilinguals. We present specific considerations for measuring degree of bilingualism for both clients and examiners to aid in determinations of approaches to testing bilinguals, with practical guidelines for incorporating models of bilingualism and recent experimental data into neuropsychological evaluations. This integrated approach promises to provide improved clinical services for bilingual clients, and will also contribute to a program of research that will ultimately reveal the mechanisms underlying language processing and executive functioning in bilinguals and monolinguals alike.

Keywords

BilingualAssessmentRacial/ethnic minoritiesCognitiveNeuropsychological

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Monica Rivera Mindt
    • 1
    • 3
  • Alyssa Arentoft
    • 1
    • 2
  • Kaori Kubo Germano
    • 1
    • 2
  • Erica D’Aquila
    • 1
    • 2
  • Diane Scheiner
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maria Pizzirusso
    • 1
    • 2
  • Tiffany C. Sandoval
    • 4
    • 5
  • Tamar H. Gollan
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyFordham UniversityNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Department of PathologyThe Mount Sinai School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Departments of Pathology & PsychiatryThe Mount Sinai School of MedicineNew YorkUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of California, San DiegoSan DiegoUSA
  5. 5.Department of PsychologySan Diego State UniversitySan DiegoUSA