Neuropsychology Review

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 1-23

Errorless Learning in the Rehabilitation of Memory Impairment: A Critical Review

  • Linda ClareAffiliated withSchool of Psychology, Bangor University Email author 
  • , Robert S. P. JonesAffiliated withSchool of Psychology, Bangor University

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


This review considers the origins of the errorless learning (EL) concept, its application in memory rehabilitation, the evidence for its effectiveness, and the theoretical basis for the observed findings. The evidence suggests that EL offers valuable benefits for at least some people with memory impairments when teaching certain types of tasks. However, the benefits are not evident for all groups, some findings are equivocal, and there are some limitations associated with this approach. We discuss methodological issues impacting on these mixed findings, consider which theoretical explanations might account for the findings regarding benefits and limitations of EL, and comment on the implications for rehabilitation practitioners of the current state of evidence in this area.


Acquired brain injury Dementia Attention Executive function Implicit memory